How did ballroom dancing start

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Arthur Murray Irene Castle Vernon Castle
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ballroom dance, type of social dancing, originally practiced in Europe and the United States, that is performed by couples and follows prescribed steps. The tradition was historically distinguished from folk or country dance by its association with the elite social classes and with invitational dance events. In the 21st century, however, ballroom dance is present in many parts of the world and has practitioners in virtually all segments of society. It is performed in various contexts, including invitational and public dance events, professional dance exhibitions, and formal competitions.

Standard ballroom dances include the waltz and the polka from the 19th century and the fox-trot, the two-step, and the tango, among others, from the 20th century. Other popular dances—such as the Charleston, swing dancing, the mambo, the twist, and disco dancing—have also visited the ballroom repertoire at various points in the tradition’s history. Owing to the social and stylistic breadth of the ballroom tradition, the term ballroom dance has often been loosely applied to all sorts of social and popular dancing.

The social origin of ballroom dance lies in the European court dances of the 17th and 18th centuries, although many of the dance steps were adapted from folk traditions. Initially, court dances were performed facing the throne, a practice known as “fronting the state,” because it was unacceptable to turn one’s back on a ruler. As court etiquette relaxed in the 19th century, however, dancers were required to face the ruler only on the most formal occasions or when they were being presented to the court. Otherwise participants danced in circles or squares throughout the ballroom.

During the first half of the 19th century, most ballroom dances, such as the polka and the waltz, were an integral component of social events known as assemblies—planned evenings for a limited group of invitees connected through family, neighbourhood, or affiliation, such as a regiment or a hunting group. Socially respected figures, such as the patriarch of a landowning family, the master of the hunt, or the colonel of the local regiment, were the usual sponsors of these events, and strict rules of etiquette were followed throughout the evening. For dancing, each woman was given a decorative souvenir card on which to list her partner for each dance; following protocol, a man would wait to be introduced to a young woman before asking for permission to enter his name on her dance card. Descriptions of behaviour and expectations at such events are settings for key plot developments in many 19th-century novels, notably those by Jane Austen, Henry James, Louisa May Alcott, Gustave Flaubert, and Leo Tolstoy.

At a typical assembly, dances were performed to live music in a specific order that was set and announced by the orchestra leader. Faster dances, such as gallops and polkas, alternated with slower ones. The music was frequently adapted from operas, ballets, or national folk (or folk-derived) dances, such as the Polish mazurka, polonaise, or cracovienne. Published music for social dance was frequently named for celebrities or special events. Although dance formations ultimately depended on the dimensions of the ballroom, most assemblies included circle (or round) dances as well as various dances generically known as germans, which were performed by lines of couples. Steps to the dances were usually learned from older family members or from friends, or occasionally from teachers, who were frequently also musicians. Dance manuals, which were published by music engravers, were also available. The steps of ballroom dances were much like those of other social dances, but the settings, social class associations, and social protocol of the two traditions differed radically. Indeed, events held in public dance halls and concert salons were commercial—rather than invitational—initiatives, and they did not adhere to the elaborate systems of etiquette that governed ballrooms.

The structure of ballroom dance events changed significantly during the later 19th century, particularly in terms of the structure of dance events and styles performed, as well as the transmission of the tradition. Invitational events were organized for a select few, such as New York City’s so-called Astor 400—the popular label applied to the invitation list for social leader Caroline Schermerhorn Astor’s Patriarch Ball (c. 1872–91). Such events combined a reception, at least one repast, and lengthy dance sets that alternated round dances with an elaborate type of german called the cotillion. The cotillion consisted of a series of short dances or dance segments that mimicked social behaviour, with couples presenting each other with flowers or souvenirs, for example. By the end of the 19th century the cotillion had become so commonplace that its name had come to designate the ballroom dance event itself.

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Not only did the style of ballroom dance change in the 19th century, but so too did its mode of transmission. In the 1870s individuals as well as families established studios and joined professional associations to teach steps, patterns, and musicality, thus stabilizing the profession of dance master. The association that later became the Dance Masters of America was founded in 1884. Certain dance masters, such as Allen Dodworth and his family in New York and A.E. Bournique in Chicago, were favoured by the social elite.

Meanwhile, the printing and distribution of dance manuals moved from music engravers to publishers of self-help books, etiquette books, women’s magazines, and clothing pattern books such as those issued by the company of Ebenezer Butterick. Books aimed at potential invitees were often miniaturized to fit in a pocket or a small handbag. A separate line of manuals and a growing number of professional periodicals were sold to dance masters and to cotillion leaders, who managed the order of dances and other activities during the evening.

The History of Ballroom Dance

The history of ballroom dance is a fascinating story of music and creative movement melding synergistically over time, producing what we know and love today as social ballroom dance and dancesport. As dancers or aspiring dancers, an understanding of the origins of our craft can help bolster our appreciation for where ballroom dance is today, and also derive inspiration from the stories behind our favorite dance styles.

While this blog post could truly be a novel, we want to offer you a short outline to explore the general idea of the history of ballroom dance. Since its origins, ballroom dance has been inspired by historical music choices, and music inspired by what the dancers created. This unique partnership is a great reminder that these histories are full of culture, stories, and lifestyles from across the globe.


Early Origins

The origins of ballroom dance first appeared in 16th century Europe—French philosopher, Michel de Montaigne, wrote of a dance that he observed in 1580 in Augsburg, Germany, where dancers moved together so closely that their faces touched. Waltz, considered the oldest traditional ballroom dance, originated as a dance style enjoyed by lower classes. Around 1750, a couples’ dance called “Walzer,” was popularized by peasants of Bavaria, Tyrol, and Styria. Danced in  ¾ time, it eventually spread from the countryside, to the suburbs, and finally into European cities.

As ballroom dance entered cities, upper classes danced the minuets (stately ballroom dances from the 18th century) to music by Mozart, Haydn and Handel. The styles of upper and lower classes blended when noblemen, bored by the minuets, stepped away to partake in the balls of their servants; as peasants and noblemen danced together, novelists took count and incorporated elements of this Waltz into their writing, often depicting it as both shameless and indecent.

However, perhaps startling to aristocrats and writers, Waltz grew in Vienna, quickly reached England, and was introduced to commoners by infantry soldiers in the early 1800s. As composers picked up on the popular dance style, those such as Johann Strauss and Franz Lanner helped increase the popularity of the ¾ time Waltz, throughout Austria and Germany. No longer was Waltz considered scandalous or indecent, the dance was most popular at social gatherings and parties across Europe, complimented by authors for it’s grace and beauty.

Across the globe, other forms of social dance emerged. While the origins of the Merengue are disputed by historians, some attribute its creation in the early 1700s to African slaves of the Dominican Republic, who combined both African and French minuet dances. After watching aristocrats dance stoic, waltz-style dances during parties, they mimicked these dances, taking bits of what they liked,  increased the tempo and added their own music and rhythm. By the 1850s, Merengue was danced at every social occasion in the Dominican Republic and neighboring Caribbean and South American Countries. Well-suited for crowded rooms or small spaces, Merengue was introduced to the United States first in New York City, and was easy to dance in bustling bars or clubs.


Turn of the Century

Around the turn of the century, many dance styles blossomed across all parts of the world.  

In the streets of Buenos Aires, Argentina, the dance and the music of Tango developed together, increasing its popularity at a rapid rate. In fact, many instruments even became known as traditional “Tango” instruments—guitar, Bandoneon (tango accordion), and ensemble bands including violins, piano, flute, and bass. In the early 1900s, Tango reached New York City and Paris, expanding into both lower class dancers in these areas, as well as wealthy Argentinian youth traveling in other parts of the world, seeking the comfort of music and dance from their home country. Tango became a trendy dance and style of music, and was soon danced across Europe and North America frequently. The North American Tango strayed slightly from the Argentinian at first, and became more unique over time. Today, the tempo of the music and movement of the dancers is must faster and typically a 2/4 or 4/4 rhythm.

In the United States, inspired by ragtime dances, a smooth and traveling dance called the Foxtrot was named after entertainer and Vaudeville actor Harry Fox. Around 1914, Harry would typically perform trotting steps to ragtime music in one of his theater acts in New York City, earning his dance the name of “Fox’s Trot”. Husband and wife actors, Vern and Irene Castle, also helped popularize and refine the dance after appearing the the Broadway Show, Watch Your Step, in 1914.

In the 1920s, an energetic dance inspired by contemporary jazz music and popularized by Black Americans became known as the Swing. Like tango, the music and dance evolved together, and Swing came to include many other styles—Lindy Hop, Shag, and Charleston. Fast, bouncier swing dancers, such as Norma "Queen of Swing" Miller, came to introduce the Jitterbug and Lindy Hop, with incredible displays or jittering movements as they danced. While Lindy Hop and other styles of Swing are still danced across the country, in Ballroom today, the most popular styles of swing are defined as “East Coast” and “West Coast” Swing.

As all of these new forms of partner dancing began to evolve around the beginning of the 20th century, there was a new birth of ballroom dance, inclusive of many of these styles. As the arts became an integral part of many American origin stories, dancers and other artists became popular within the media. The Hollywood stars Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers were only the start of a dance partnership making the world fall in love. Between their connection on the dance floor, ability to move as one with music, and creation of routines that viewers remember for years to come, dancers such as these are the fulcrum of our country’s passion for partner dancing.

In the 1940s, the origins of Mambo showed great collaboration between dance and music. Bandleaders, starting to play a new form of music called Mambo, developed a very creative and expressive dance based off of their new music style. While this dance provided people the freedom to move their bodies to the flow of the music, it was also characterized by complicated footwork and interesting patterns. Mambo became so popular that a Puerto Rican dancer, Pedro Aguilar, who came to be known as “Cuban Pete” even had songs written about him and the way that he finessed the Mambo, making himself a household name. Although he was not from New York, he brought his dance style and eccentric dance ability to the Palladium club in New York city. He is known historically as the “greatest Mambo dancer ever”, presented this title by Tito Puente, a superstar in Latin dance music.

Alongside the Mambo, the Cuban Rumba was an extremely popular dances within a club setting or on the streets, danced to the music of local entertainers in Latin America. Similarly to the Mambo, Rumba is both a style of musical rhythms and a dance. Originating in Africa, this dance and music style was brought to Latin America through African slave trade to Cuba. In Africa, the Rumba began as a fast dance, with large hip actions, said to represent the “chase” of a courtship. The “Son”, a popular Cuban dance, was a similar dance style to the Rumba, but was slower and more compressed. The wealthy Cuban class also danced a different style to Rumba music, called the “Danzon”, where the hip movements were much smaller and created by bending and straightening of the knees. As Rumba increased in popularity in South America, the styles began to blend. The Rumba we know today is a combination of parts of each of these histories, and even is danced competitively across both the American and International categories.


Ballroom Dance Today

Within the successive years, governing bodies of ballroom dance were formed across the United States and the entire world in order to collaborate internationally and produce competitive dancing events. Today, ballroom dance is a phenomenon as a social activity, as well as a competitive entity, delivering some of our country’s most talented athletes as they blend elite execution of skill with a beautiful art form. This growing trend of ballroom dance has only been increased as television shows like Dancing with the Stars have increased in popularity. Ballroom dance is a unique opportunity to move, share movement with others, and showcase creativity.









Ballroom Dancing - History and Development

Ballroom dance originated in Europe and the United States, where it was traditionally performed by couples following strictly prescribed steps. Ballroom dance traditions have varied historically by ethnicity or country, but have most often been associated with an elite social class. In the 21st century, however, ballroom dancing is present in many parts of the world and is performed by people from almost all walks of life.

The standard ballroom dances included waltz and polka at 19century, as well as foxtrot, two-step and tango in the 20th century. Some other popular dances such as Charleston, Swing, Mambo, Twist and Disco have been incorporated into the ballroom repertoire at certain points in history. Due to the social and stylistic breadth of ballroom traditions, the term ballroom dance is often broadly applied to all types of social and popular dances.

The social origins of ballroom dancing date back to European court dances of the 17th and 18th centuries, although many of the dance steps were adapted from folk traditions. Initially, court dances were performed facing the throne, as it was unacceptable to turn your back on the ruler. When the rules of court etiquette were relaxed at 19century, dancers performed before the ruler only on the most solemn occasions or when they were presented to the court. Otherwise, the performers danced in a circle or square formation throughout the hall.
In the first half of the 19th century, most ballroom dances, such as the polka and the waltz, were an integral part of social events. There were whole themed evenings with strict rules of etiquette, which could only be accessed by invitation. Socially respected figures such as patriarchs of landowning families, master hunters or warlords usually sponsored such events. nine0007 For the dance portion of the evening, each woman received a decorative souvenir card listing her partners for each dance. According to protocol, men had to wait to be introduced to a young woman before asking permission to be included on her dance card. Similar traditions were described in many novels of the 19th century, in particular in the works of Jane Austen, Henry James, Gustave Flaubert and Leo Tolstoy.

Usually in the 19th century, ballroom dancing was performed to live music in a certain order, which was predetermined and announced by the leader of the orchestra. Fast dances such as the gallop and polka alternated with slower ones. The music was often adapted from operas, ballets, or national folk dances such as the Polish mazurka, polonaise, or krakowiak. Typically, social dance music was named after celebrities or special events. nine0007 Although the size of the dance groups and formation in the dance ultimately depended on the size of the dance hall, most of the formations at that time were a circle or a line. The steps to these dances were usually passed down by older family members or friends, less often by teachers who were often also musicians.
Gradually, printed manuals for certain dances began to appear, which further contributed to their popularity. Dance events held in public dance halls and concert halls have become commercial rather than the invitation-only events they used to be. It also eliminated the need for the complex system of etiquette previously required by ballroom dancing. nine0007 The structure of ballroom dancing changed significantly during the 19th century, in particular, both in terms of the structure of the dance events and the styles performed, as well as in terms of the transmission of traditions. Such dance events mostly took place in conjunction with a dinner, after which ballroom dancing was performed, which alternated with complex circular German dances called cotillion. The cotillion usually consisted of a series of short dances or dance pieces that imitated social behavior, and also in which couples gave each other flowers or souvenirs. By the end of 19In the 1900s, the cotillion became so widespread that its name began to be used to refer to an event in ballroom dancing.

In the 19th century, not only the style of ballroom dancing underwent changes, but also the mode of its transmission between people. In the 1870s, anyone who wanted to become true masters of the dance was able to join professional associations.

The publication and distribution of dance teaching aids was also expanding, which began to be published not only in books on etiquette, but in women's magazines and fashion manuals. Books aimed at new people who might potentially be interested in dancing were often made small enough to fit in a pocket or small purse. Separately, it is necessary to mention manuals and professional periodicals, which were sold mainly by dance masters and leaders of the cotillon. nine0003

Ballroom dancing and dance events underwent a major transformation in the early 20th century. Compared to the 19th century, they became less "monumental", many conventions were removed, and the rules of etiquette became less demanding. Dances such as one step, two step, foxtrot and others have become much easier to learn compared to the last century. There were many teachers, manuals, dance halls and columns in dance magazines. In this new atmosphere of accessibility, two sub-categories were developed: professional ballroom dancing, which focused on demonstration in front of an audience, and competitive ballroom dancing, in which amateur couples performed dances according to strict rules, competing for prizes or titles in various competitions. nine0007 "Exhibition" or professional ballroom dancing was carried out not only by performers, but also by teachers and choreographers. The popularity of professional duets was increased through photographs and films. Competing groups often chose exotic dances to compete, such as the Argentinean and Parisian tango, or the Brazilian maxise. Inspired by professional pairs of performers, amateur pairs have also begun to host local competitions.

Non-professional ballroom dancing, meanwhile, spread its influence beyond the ballrooms, beginning to appear in public cabarets, rooftop gardens, and outdoor dance halls, democratizing traditions. Some members of the elite society also adopted these traditions. For example, Ann Morgan (daughter of founding financier JP Morgan) and Elizabeth Marber started hosting ballroom dance parties. However, the further association of young people in public places often meant the consumption of alcoholic beverages. This meant that ballroom dancing was hit hard by the US alcohol prohibition at 1920s and early 30s. During this era, many dance companies focused on vaudeville or moved to Europe.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the line separating ballroom dancing from other types of social dancing was actually blurred (albeit temporarily), and the primary market for promoting dance in society moved to the theater. Partly ballroom dancing was integrated into such popular musicals as No, No, Nanette (1925) and Good News (1927), as well as films about modern life such as The Nice People (1922) and Our Dancing Daughters (1928). Also during this time, ballroom dancing was greatly influenced by African American social dancing. A number of Charleston steps that were featured in the African-American musical Runnin' Wild (1923) gradually made their way into the ballroom repertoire.

In the 1920s, foxtrot and other ballroom dance music began to be distributed by music publishers and popularized by radio. This influence ultimately helped shape the final form of standard ballroom dancing that can still be seen today in the 21st century. Likewise, the circulation of published dance manuals has grown thanks to franchised studios such as Arthur Murray. nine0003

Since the end of the ban on dance parties in 1933, ballroom dancing has become an integral part of every American's life and has become both a form of popular entertainment and an integral part of the entertainment industry. Dancing has become a regular feature, both in public places and at invitational events such as country club dances as well as dance parties in private country clubs.

Popular African American social dances in the first half of the 20th century, such as lindy (or lindy hop), stomp and swing, were introduced into the ballroom repertoire, albeit in a somewhat less exuberant form. Some of the most famous public institutions for these dances, such as the Savoy and Audubon ballrooms in New York's Harlem district, survived well into the mid-20th century. They often hosted sponsored competitions such as the preliminary rounds of the Harvest Moon Ball at Madison Square Garden. nine0003

Meanwhile, the popularity of songs and dances in the Caribbean and South America, as well as the development of Afro-Cuban jazz (at the beginning of Latin jazz), contributed to the renewed enthusiasm for Latin dances, as a result of which, in the 1930s, the rumba, an acrobatic adagio, regained popularity, Cuban mambo, cha-cha-cha and slow dance styles.
In the second half of the 20th century, the genre of social dance, like the entire entertainment industry, was aimed at a "youthful" audience. Accordingly, popular dances such as rock and roll (such as the twist), disco dancing (such as the hustle), and breakdancing have been heavily promoted in the context of ballroom dancing. Old forms of ballroom dancing, in particular those invented in the 19century, began to be associated with new types of social rituals, especially charity dance parties. These events were usually called cotillions or "debutant balls". Basically, they were meant to raise money for "worthy causes" and to introduce young people to society.
Early styles of ballroom dancing were also still practiced at traditional family events such as weddings and Mexican Quinceanera celebrations that celebrated a girl's entry into adulthood. nine0007 "Exhibition" ballroom dancing remained popular in the UK and Continental Europe throughout the 20th century, particularly in various resorts and hotels where themed ballrooms were held. Especially after the 1960s, ballroom dancing gained a lot of fans in Asia. Meanwhile, the rules governing competitive ballroom dancing have become more precise as dance instructors have shifted their focus from inventing new forms of dance to perfecting existing ones. These "official" versions of the foxtrot, waltz, tango, with well-defined steps and poses of dancers, have been preserved in European television competitions and to some extent in Olympic figure skating (particularly in ice dancing). nine0007 In the early 21st century, an alternative form of competitive ballroom dancing flourished in Europe, North America, and South America on television shows such as Dancing with the Stars. Ballroom dance continues to be consistently popular and adapt in response to the ever-changing aesthetics of modern culture.

The history of the emergence of sports ballroom dancing

The history of the emergence of sports ballroom dancing

From the analysis of literary sources, it has been established that ballroom dancing appeared in the 15th century in Italy and France in connection with the passion for balls (from Latin Ballare - to dance) of secular society. At that time, ballroom dancing was a household folk dance modified by the norms of etiquette and way of life. Changing and acquiring new facets, by the XIX century. ballroom dancing became fashionable in many countries of the Old World. Due to the absence of complex figures, the simplicity of movements and the captivating melodies, the waltz took the leading place among them. nine0003

By the beginning of the 20th century, due to the appearance of various types of ballroom dances, there was a need for their systematization and standardization. In the 1920s, some European states began to hold informal conferences. These were the first steps in the emergence and development of dance sport. In 1924 in England, the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (ISTD) decided to standardize the dances known at that time (slow waltz, tango, Viennese waltz, slow foxtrot, quickstep), and a special ISTD committee on ballroom dancing, which included the best ballroom dancers of those years, began to engage in this important business [16] /

At the beginning of the 20th century, ballroom dancing competitions were widely developed. In 1935, the first dance association was created in Prague - the International Federation of Amateur Dancers, which existed until 1956. The first world amateur championship was held in Germany in Bad Neuheim in 1936. Dancers from fifteen countries on three continents took part in it.

In the 1930s - 1950s, the number of ballroom dances in competitive programs was gradually increased to ten due to Latin American dances (rumba, samba, jive, paso doble, cha-cha-cha). And in the end, modern programs were formed: European and Latin American. nine0003

The leader of competitive ballroom dancing is England, where the English school of ballroom choreography was formed and retains its importance to this day. It formulated the first rules of the international standard of ballroom dancing and created a system of techniques for their performance. In 1957, the International Union of Amateur Dancers (1CAB) was created, which in 1990 was renamed the International DanceSport Federation (IDSF), now it is the World DanceSport Organization (WDSF), formed in 2011. In the early 80s In the 20th century, IDSF coined the term "dancesport" to refer to the competitive form of ballroom dancing [23]. nine0003

By 1992, IDSF was a full member of the international convention "Sport-Accord", which brings together more than 100 international sports federations. Soon the dance sport was recognized by the International Olympic Committee. However, the imperfect judging system and the lack of clear evaluation criteria have so far prevented dance sport from being included in the program of the Olympic Games.

Sports dance appeared in the USSR in the summer of 1957. At that time, on the initiative of a group of enthusiasts of ballroom competitive dance (as dance sport was called at that time), the first international tournament in sports dances was held in the Column Hall of the House of Unions as part of the World Festival of Youth and Students. By the end of 9In the 0s of the XX century, the leading Soviet dance couples showed high results in international competitions. All these years, ballroom dancing belonged to the sphere of artistic culture. A few circles and studios of ballroom dance existed in the system of Soviet amateur performances.

It was only in the conditions of perestroika that the prerequisites for the organizational design of the sports and dance movement arose. In 1988, the USSR Ballroom Dance Association was established, which included public associations of ballroom choreography from nine union republics. nine0003

At the end of 1991, after the collapse of the USSR, the Ballroom Dance Association of the RSFSR was separated into an independent public organization called the Russian Sport Dance Association. The current name is the Dance Sports Federation of Russia (FTSR).

Since February 1992, the FTSR has represented the Russian Federation in the IDSF. By the mid-90s of the 20th century, the sports authorities in our country at the federal and regional levels recognized competitive ballroom dancing as an independent sport. At 1998 FTSR became a collective member of the Russian Olympic Committee. As a result of the expansion of competitive programs and the increase in the number of categories of participants, sports dance covers an increasing number of athletes. Now there are a large number of various competitions in sports dancing. Several programs have been formed: European, Latin American, biathlon (ten dances), European and Latin American sequey (three-minute show with original music), European and Latin American formation (competitions of ensembles of 8 couples). Amateur world championships are held under the auspices of the WDSF (formerly IDSF), and professional ones are held under the auspices of the World Dance Council. English competitions continue to be the most prestigious in the world, in particular, the UK Open and the Blackpool Dance Festival. Another direction of competitive dance is the competition of mixed pairs Professional-Amateur (Pro-Am), this direction is especially developed in the USA and Canada. In the United States of America, a peculiar national version of both some ballroom dances and competitions in them - "American Smooth", "American Rhythm" - is also preserved. nine0003

The European program (Modern or Standard) includes 5 dances: quickstep (tempo - 50-52 beats per minute), slow waltz (tempo - 28-29 beats per minute), tango (tempo - 30-32 beats per minute) , slow foxtrot (tempo - 27-29 beats per minute), and Viennese waltz (tempo - 58-60 beats per minute). Ladies in this program must have appropriate ball gowns. Cavaliers must be dressed in tailcoats of black or dark blue and wear a bow tie or tie. Instead of a tailcoat, dancing in a tuxedo or vest is allowed. The modern men's dance costume differs from the everyday one in the first place in the cut, one of the features of which is that the shoulders of the partner's costume must remain even when the arms are raised to the sides. nine0003

The Latin American program includes dances: samba (tempo - 50-52 beats per minute), cha-cha-cha (tempo - 30-32 beats per minute), rumba (tempo - 21-25 beats per minute) , paso doble (tempo - 58-62 beats per minute) and jive (tempo - 40-44 beats per minute). From Latin American dances, only samba and paso doble are danced with advancement along the line of dance. In other dances, the dancers more or less remain in one place, although in these dances it is possible for the dancers to move around the dance floor with or without returning to the starting point. At present, ladies' competitive dresses tend to be short, very revealing and tight-fitting. The modern competitive suit of gentlemen is also quite tight-fitting, emphasizing the masculine lines of the body. nine0003

In modern sports dancing there are many different figures, movements, connections, lines, lifts that can be used to create a program. The technique of athletes is constantly improving, absorbing the most significant technical aspects of the performance of the best dancers of the past and present. Various schools are formed with their own individual style, formed by outstanding dancers and their followers, some of them unite, forming their own directions in sports dances. nine0003

It is obvious that sports dance, as a part of not only sports, but also art, is closely connected with fashion, social changes, and the political situation, which in different periods left its mark on the development of dance sports. From year to year there is an increase in the technical skills of athletes. The scoring system in sports dances is changing - an absolute scoring system is being introduced, aimed at objectifying the judging system and a more accessible understanding of the score for the viewer. There is an expansion of the program of international competitions, which now include competitions among ensembles, show programs, freestyle, European and Latin American championships. A unified program of competitions has been developed and is constantly expanding, which are already taking place in more than a hundred countries around the world. The tasks of the World Federation for the next fifty years are the inclusion of dance sport in the program of the Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, Youth Olympic Games. The increase in the sports component and entertainment of ballroom dancing as a progressive trend in its further development contributes to improving the quality of the dancers' performing skills, successfully attracting spectators to dance sports competitions, and society's awareness of sports dancing as a sport. They need to develop the scientific foundations for the organization of the training process, rethink the means, forms and methods of training. nine0003


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