How has contemporary dance changed over time

Contemporary Dance – always changing – Dance Consortium

People in the arts regularly bandy about the phrase ‘contemporary dance,’ but what exactly do they mean? It’s a blanket term stretching all the way back to such early 20th-century modern dance pioneers as Isadora Duncan and Martha Graham, names many have heard of, even if they know little or nothing about their owners, and reaching forward to, say, the hugely pleasurable, music-led choreography of Mark Morris, the smartly populist and innovative spectacles concocted by Brazil’s Deborah Colker or the latest, hottest street styles of the hip hop phenomenon. That’s a pretty big blanket, and it covers the entire globe.

Look at contemporary dance as you would a painting or sculpture, or as you might listen to a piece of music. Let go of the self-imposed pressure of your need to ‘get it.’ Now, what’s your response?

Anyone even vaguely familiar with the Dance Consortium, the perpetrators of this website, couldn’t help but recognise just how international the context for contemporary dance has become especially in the UK. Since 2000 the 18 venues that are members of the Consortium have presented work by dance companies from North and South America, France and the Netherlands, and the net keeps widening.

Aside from its world-wide scope, one of the major points of contemporary dance as a whole is how relevant it is to the way we live now, or at least it ought to be. Ideally, it is a very present-tense experience that speaks of and to the time in which it is being made. To risk stating the obvious, that’s why it carries the label ‘contemporary.’

It used to be known as modern dance. If, in some quarters, this particular adjective seems so yesterday, that’s not to discredit those trailblazers whose dance-making changed the direction of an art form. Imposing figures like Graham, commonly dubbed the mother of modern dance, or one of her first male company members, Merce Cunningham, who left the nest and in the process became just as influential an artistic giant.

It could be said that what keeps choreographers like Cunningham, Morris, Colker and other masters or mavericks such as Paul Taylor and Bill T Jones (to drop a few more names whose work the Consortium has championed) going strong and at the top of their game is a shared hunger for the untried and the new. They all delight in making discoveries about movement, themselves and life through their work. It’s this fresh perspective on moving and being alive that all contemporary dance potentially offers any open-minded, open-hearted audience member regardless of his or her familiarity with the art form.

To reduce it to its essence, contemporary dance developed in a rebellion against the hierarchy and restrictions of 19th-century classical ballet. It was conceived as a heightened, kinetic form of self-expression in which each artist was at liberty to determine his or her own creative path. This may sound like the perfect excuse for an anything-goes free-for-all. The truth is that most artists, at their best, are dedicated to harnessing the discipline necessary to realise even their most daring, far-out ideas.

Some apply their training and skills to craft the most sophisticated, refined example of an already established dance form as they can. Others throw away the rule book entirely, experimenting with and fusing genres, styles and influences as a means of finding and developing their own voice, or are spurred on to test and transcend their limitations via collaborations with composers and musicians, writers, visual artists, designers and architects. No matter what the source, examples of bold and distinctive choices in dance abound. (article continues after the image gallery)

  • Twyla Tharp using the Billy Joel songbook to fuel her dance-driven Broadway-to-West End show Movin’Out
  • Matthew Bourne’s savvy reworkings of classical ballet (Swan Lake, The Nutcracker) and film-to-stage adaptations (Edward Scissorhands)
  • Shobana Jeyasingh fracturing the vocabulary of her classical Indian dance heritage by aligning it to the speed of contemporary life and setting the results to commissioned scores from such Western composers as Michael Nyman, Kevin Volans and Orlando Gough.
  • Rafael Bonachela bouncing between razor-sharp choreographic commissions for Rambert Dance Company and devising the moves for pop star Kylie Minogue’s stadium-sized tours.
  • Wayne McGregor deriving inspiration for full-length dances from medical conditions (Marfan’s syndrome, ataxia) as well as cutting-edge digital technology.
  • Lloyd Newson grounding his provocative productions for DV8 Physical Theatre in sexual politics and human behaviour.
  • Rodrigo Pederneiras of Brazil’s Grupo Corpo exploring every facet of the human body subject to the seductive forces of rhythm.
  • Jonathan Burrows basing an entire (and entirely engaging) dance on two men sitting in chairs gesturing to an unheard musical score by a dead American composer.
Wayne McGregor Shobana JeyasinghJohnathan BurrowsGrupo CorpoSwan LakeRafael BonachelaMovin Out TourLloyd Newson

It has been said, disparagingly, that contemporary dance is anything you can’t readily understand. The fact is that some work asks us to work a little harder in order to reap greater rewards. Accessibility in any branch of the arts can be a tricky business. It’s kind of like finding a key and inserting it into the right lock. Sometimes the door opens and bingo, you’re in with the ‘in’ crowd. At other times even experienced dance-goers are unable to find not just the key that opens the door, but the door itself.

Good advice for those who find contemporary dance intimidating: Look at it as you would a painting or sculpture, or as you might listen to a piece of music. Let go of the self-imposed pressure of your need to ‘get it.’ Now, what’s your response?

Here’s another helpful tip. The American critic Edwin Denby once wrote that seeing dance is about getting drunk on a performance, then being able to talk about it rationally afterwards. This could be reduced to the ‘drink, then think’ method. Try it. And once you do, you’ll learn just how wonderfully wild and wide the contemporary dance universe can be.

What's contemporary dance these days?

BEST OF 2013: A favourite article from the June Edition.

By Rebecca Martin of Dance Informa.

When I was a young dance student, contemporary dance was weird angular movement that was abstract and uncommon. As I got older, contemporary then became a fusion of the neo-classical style and was very balletic. Since then, the term “contemporary” conjures images of all different styles and genres of dance, most of which have become extremely popular to both dancers and audiences alike.

Contemporary dance is very interpretive in its choreography and often focuses on emotions and storytelling, can be performed barefoot, with pointe shoes, naked, fully clothed, and with or without music. Contemporary dance almost defies description because it can be balletic or wholly abstract, jazz-influenced or lyrical, structured or unconventional. Modern dance pioneers such as Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham paved the way for a new contemporary technique and vocabulary to flourish and influence how we dance.

Contemporary dance continues to grow in popularity due, in part, to its accessibility to dancers. The freedom of movement that contemporary allows affords dancers with less training or technique to still enjoy dance without the need for perfect turnout or nice feet. That isn’t to say that contemporary dance is in any way inferior to ballet. Contemporary dance can be challenging both physically and emotionally and it pushes the boundaries of dance and forces audiences to think and take chances.

Dance Informa spoke to some of Australia’s contemporary choreographers and teachers to discover what “contemporary” is in 2013.

Sarah Boulter teaches contemporary dance at Ev & Bow Full Time Dance Training Centre in Sydney

Who and what influences your teaching and performing of contemporary dance?

Sarah Boulter of Ev and Bow Full Time Dance Training Centre, NSW
So many aspects influence me as a choreographer/teacher: life experience, travel, music choreographic tasks, personal relationships and of course, the dancers and a love for physical perfection.

Two directors in particular have impacted my work: Franco Dragone and Meryl Tankard.

Franco Dragone is the mastermind/director behind Cirque Du Soleil’s O, Quidam, Mysterie and A New Day, to name a few. Franco Dragone is a creative genius. I have never worked with a director that can create such a unique tone, atmosphere and soul throughout one work.

Meryl Tankard, our Australian legend, produces works that have the capability to be incredibly entertaining, staying true to the contemporary dance art form.

Louise Deleur of Lucid Dance Theatre, QLD
I have a strong classical background and my Pilates training in NY and Cynthia Lochard from the Pilates Studio in Sydney gave me a whole new understanding of body mechanics and technique, which I apply to all my training. Style-wise, my main influences have been through the many choreographers I have worked with both in Australia and overseas. My classes are structured like a classical class, however I like to develop movement sequences to both inspire and challenge students.

Freya List, choreographer and freelance teacher, VIC
My biggest inspiration is music. It’s a vital part of creating and provoking feeling when you dance. The music is what inspires us to move the way we do.

It’s always so important to have great teachers who themselves are constantly evolving and learning. A great teacher finds the balance between encouraging individual exploration of movement and explaining how to move like they do. I try to find this in a teacher when training and I try to mimic this structure when teaching.

I’m inspired by the athleticism and strength in movement of dancers such as the Nederlands Dans Theater, who create courageous, strong, yet fluid works. It is also inspiring to see local companies and individuals around Melbourne who trust in their talent and build shows from the ground up. My peers who create movement and explore choices I never would have thought of are my motivation. Getting to watch these people grow is inspiring.

How do you think contemporary has influenced other styles of dance?

Sarah Boulter
There is no doubt contemporary dance is extremely popular. Within the commercial dance scene at the moment there is a notable emerging essence of a more contemporary feel. I believe dancers and choreographers really warm to exploration, individuality and freedom.

Louise Deleur
Contemporary dance these days really allows you to mix a whole lot of styles and influences together and still come under the banner of “contemporary”. You see freedom of movement, floor work and off-balance moves slip into today’s classical repertoire through to circus performers cross-pollinating their routines.

Freya List
The umbrella of what covers “contemporary” is so broad, but I would say that the freedom within movement and the abandonment commonly used in contemporary dance influences other styles – when it is adopted and paired with other genres it makes for interesting dynamics. It’s also about knowing where the movement stems from, so each line in jazz can be longer or each hit in hip-hop can be harder.

Freya List in a Broadway Dance Center photoshoot in Brooklyn, New York. Photo by Dirty Sugar

How do you see contemporary dance today and how has it evolved?

Sarah Boulter
Contemporary dance is always evolving and it embodies so much! We have the traditional dance companies, physical theatre dance companies and the experimental dance companies that involve many other art forms.

Within the dance school community there is a large trend towards a commercial contemporary/lyrical dance style. This can be very visually exciting and entertaining, but it may not necessarily be teaching the dancer the underpinning technical foundations needed for contemporary dance. It is important for young dancers to experience more traditional practices so they gain knowledge and understanding about contemporary dance technique, which I feel will bring our dancers more inline with our contemporary dance companies.

Louise Deleur
We see influences from the dynamics of jazz and gymnastic styles creeping into the umbrella of “contemporary” dance. I see companies being classically based in their approach by their use of traditional methods in their warm-up classes and then relying on the choreographers work to develop their contemporary style. Other contemporary companies use a lot more release technique, yoga and tumbling to enhance their choreographic approach. All in all, “contemporary” is a broad word these days. It disappoints me at times when I see works today that approach contemporary as an opportunity to do a series of tricks with no structure, technique, detail or artistic concern.

Freya List
Contemporary has come to encompass so many styles under the one genre title. It would be a shame to see it through a narrow mind in both its past and present forms. In my opinion, earlier contemporary styles (such as those danced by Martha Graham) were more free-flowing and relaxed, whereas now it has taken a turn towards athleticism and execution of strong shapes. Currently we sit somewhere between these styles, where shapes, technique and clear positions are executed, but overall we enjoy movement that is very musical and story driven.

What makes a great contemporary dancer?

Sarah Boulter
So many elements make a contemporary dancer great and unique. A contemporary dancer needs to be interesting and distinctive within their performance quality, engaging, creative in the choreographic process, as well as having an understanding of the contemporary dance technique and the physical fine-tuning of the style.

Louise Deleur
When choosing dancers to work with I look for not only technical ability but also a combination of an awareness of their body and ability to understand movement, an artistic connection to movement and music, personality, reliability, honesty, passion, an ability to creatively work in a team and an artistic depth and performance quality that captures my attention. As artists we all possess different combinations of these qualities and it’s up to dancers (and teachers) to recognise our strengths and weakness to balance, nurture and develop these personal attributes.

Freya List
Someone who has a thorough understanding of how their body works and what they can do with it. This knowledge then lends itself when exploring what they are capable of and creating a unique style with what only their body can do.

To be a good contemporary dancer you of course need fundamental technique for floor work, contraction, breath, etc. However, I believe to be a great contemporary dancer you need intention and to be able to allow that intention to drive your movement. Someone who can captivate an audience and be honest and truthful to their story – that’s a great contemporary dancer.

Photo (top): Freya List performing 4 Letters with Melbourne contemporary dance company Collaboration The Project. Choreographed and directed by Kim Adam. Photo by Pru Wilson of Boom Media.

Related Items:Cirque du Soleil, contemporary choreographer, contemporary choreography, Contemporary dance, contemporary dance Australia, Cynthia Lochard, dance fusion, Ev and Bow Full Time Dance Training Centre, Franco Dragone, Freya List, Louise Deleur, Lucid Dance Theatre, Martha Graham, Merce Cunningham, Meryl Tankard, NDT, Nederlands Dans Theater, Sarah Boulter

History, directions of hip-hop

Hip-hop is a social dance . What is social dance? First of all, this is a dance that is done not for competition, but for leisure, for communication and the exchange of positive emotions. A dance that is available to everyone, regardless of age, physical qualities, social status.
The history of hip-hop dance dates back almost three decades.

Founders of hip-hop style

Buddha Stretch , who is one of the founders of this trend, says that hip-hop dance appeared by the end of 1984.

By this time, the era of breakdancing and funk styles (bboying, funkstyles) had come to an end, the funk and disco music styles were no longer so popular, they were replaced by hip-hop music. The music has changed, the dance has changed. The birthplace of hip-hop dance was New York, where various social dances such as The Prep, Rambo (The Fila) and many others were danced in various clubs in Harlem (Harlem) . A significant number of them were invented back in the 70s, when the funk era was in its heyday, over time they changed, acquired new details, were performed a little differently.

Clubs like Roxy, Inferno, Union Square began to play hip-hop music, and a new generation of dancers improvised, mixing old dances, inventing new ones. Gradually, by 1986, a group was formed in the Union Square club, which danced in a new style. By 1987, many hip-hop dancers began to work with various hip-hop artists (Whodini, Scoob & Scrap, Big Daddy Kane, Salt & Pepa and others).

Mop Top/Elite Force 9 formed in 19910004, who worked with many famous artists (Michael Jackson, Will Smith, Mariah Carey) and popularized hip-hop dance with the help of clips. The band members were Budda Stretch, Link, Caleaf, Ejoe, as well as Peter Paul, Ramir, Tone, Casper, Aid and Luz Joint, Ruberband, Peekaboo, Marquez, Quito and Prancer - they were from the Mystidious Misfits team.

If initially hip-hop dance was only in clubs and they learned it from each other there, then with the increased popularity of the dance, there was a need to learn it. Hip-hop began to be taught in dance studios, which made it available all over the world.

The basis of hip-hop dance

The basis of hip-hop dance is a groove (groove) is a feeling of body movement to the beat of music, for a dancer it is not only some kind of constant movement that keeps pace, and on which basic movements are then superimposed, but a deeper experience of belonging to music. There can be no other opinion - no groove, no hip-hop. For comparison, you can watch other dances with a groove (there are many videos of different dance styles on the Divadance website): house, dancehall, locking, popping, breaking, and styles that do not have a groove: jazz, contemporary dance, classical dance.

Hip-hop dance has its own basics that every dancer should know. Not knowing the basic moves is like trying to speak another language without knowing a single word or knowing just a few.

Varieties of the hip-hop base:

The hip-hop base is divided by the time the movements were invented:

  • old school (oldschool) - 80s,
  • middle school (middle school) - 90s,
  • new school (newschool) - after 2000.

Old school includes Smurf, The Prep, Fila (The Rambo), Happy Feet, Cabbage Patch, Reebok and more.

High School : Running Man, Roger Rabbit, Party Machine, Bart Simpson, Steve Martin and more.

The new school includes : Tone-Whop, Monestary, Harlem Shake, Walk it out, ATL Stomp, etc.

New movements continue to be created and to this day, the style continues to evolve.

Hip-hop dance was and is an improvisational style to dance here and now, to create something new, to express yourself by immersing yourself in music. There is nothing wrong with hip-hop choreography if it is based on knowledge and understanding of the basics, but, unfortunately, there are too many teachers who do not know the basics, cannot improvise, they only dance chords. This is not hip-hop, something only remotely reminiscent of it. If you love what you do - devote a lot of time to it, understand, learn new things, do not deceive yourself and others.

Hip-hop dance is considered a youth phenomenon, a temporary phenomenon, but it is not. People who started dancing it in the 80s continue to dance it today (and we are glad to see it in Divadance) and do not look stupid, but only cause respect and admiration.

Age is not important, what matters is what hip-hop dance carries in itself - it is freedom in movement, freedom in expressing oneself, understanding music, respect for oneself and others, positive communication !

1. Buddha Stretch about the development of hip-hop, translated by Alexander Sokolov
2. New School dictionary (video)
3. hip-hop public Vobra (Vladimir Obraztsov)

Olga Solovieva

Dance Zafak in the performances of modern Adygov

It is danced by men and women, from young to old, this creates the idea that the Zafak dance has existed among the Circassians since ancient times. However, in the sources of the XVIII - XIX centuries. dance traces are not traced. This may indicate that it existed in a different form or with a different name.

In this paper, we want to present the opinion of three people about Zafak, whose life experience and professional activities are directly related to him - these are R. Yu. Tuguz, M. M. Beshkok, Z. Z. Irugov.

ZZ Irugov - professional harmonist. He graduated from the Adyghe State University as a music teacher, worked as an accordion player for nine years in the State Academic Folk Dance Ensemble ''Nalmes''.

M. M. Beshkok has worked on stage for decades as a dancer and choreographer. It is a living link between the XIX-XXI centuries. because worked with people born in the middle of the 19th century.

To the question: In what century do you think Zafak appeared among the Circassians? R.Yu. Tuguz replied that Zafak is an ancient and the very first dance, as well as the basis of all dances.

What do you think is the reason for it?

- R.Yu. Tuguz: In ancient times, when people as part of the younger generation gathered for holidays or other celebrations, of course, the presence of young girls was natural. During the evening, a young guy might like one of the girls, but since the habze (established laws) did not allow direct acquaintance with the girl, as a result, the need for this dance arose. Zafak is a dance of acquaintance, a dance of dating.

In what century did Zafak appear among the Circassians?

- M. M. Beshkok: Zafak is the oldest dance of all dances. His age is determined by two, three centuries - according to stories and history that has come down to our days. All other dances used to be dedicated to some gods, that is, they were cult, but they have also changed. Over time, these dances began to move away from the cult, became more fun, entertaining, wide. Zafak is the first dance performed at parties, weddings. In this dance, the girl, as it were, meets the guy for the first time, and they speak the language of dance, movements, and exchange glances.

Tell me, please, where does the dance itself begin?

- R. Yu. Tuguz: The dance began with the announcement of the name of the young man who would come out to dance. After the young man left the crowd, the girl was invited. Leaving the circle, the girl took two steps forward, after which the guy went around her, thereby showing respect for her and a willingness to dance.

- M. M. Beshkok: In everyday life, zefak is common as a dance invitation to the first acquaintance, "on the first date." Usually at festivities or family celebrations, the hachiyako (dance director) before announcing the dance, says the following words:

Gupshyse sh'efim / Think intimately,
Guhely nefim / Light wishes
Kyfeuschygyer / Woke up in it
Adyge kashyu / Adyghe dance -
Shuze1uk1oti / You part!
Zefak1o dahem / In Zafak beautiful
Gukheleu i1er / Desires to express
K1alem rezhugya1u ... / Give the guy.

After these or similar words, the hachiako calls out the names of the boys and girls who are invited to the zefak dance. As soon as the music of the announced dance begins to sound, the young man approaches the girl (the hachiyako girl immediately takes the named girl out of the row) and invites her with a slight bow of her head, steps back, takes the original place of the dance. The girl comes out calmly and, settling on the opposite side from the young man, stops in strict "silence", which means her readiness to dance. The dance begins with movement in a circle. A girl and a young man dance attentively and strictly, looking furtively at each other, transitions follow, changing places, turning faces, meeting in the center of the circle, as if appreciating each other, presenting themselves with dignity at the first meeting. Relationships in dance reveal the meaning of the first communication "dating in public", and this determines the nature of the behavior of young people in dances. In this case, zefak is unusually strict and traditional. This, in fact, is a public recognition of the independence of young people.

What do the movements mean in Zafaka?

- R. Yu. Tuguz: Movements in this dance play a huge role, since the main meaning lies in them. In Zafaka, the girl must behave modestly, her movements must be smooth, and she must dance with her eyes downcast. The girl was not supposed to directly look the guy in the face, which would give her a defiant look, and this is not typical for a girl of that time. She could only watch. The guy, in turn, should dance with his head up, show his harmony, masculinity, but in no case should he behave defiantly, make movements that offend the girl, for example; wink at her, otherwise the consequences for him would be fraught. The case could go as far as gouging out the eye. This dance is the dance of the first meeting, the boy and girl must understand each other through movement. This had to be done very beautifully and in such a way that those standing around did not guess what they were talking about in the language of movements.

Please tell me if that original Zafak has changed, if so, in what way?

- R. Yu. Tuguz: Yes. Of course, Zafak, who danced before, has lost the very deep meaning that was originally laid in it, at least this is observed on the territory of the Republic of Adygea. However, in far-abroad countries, where the Adyghes live, the dance has been preserved ideally, practically without any changes.

- MM Beshkok: The Circassians have several varieties of Zafak-type dances. These are: Khakuach, Hunthups, Kasho-lyash, Zygagus. But, unfortunately, today these dances are lost, confused and mixed with others. When you are present at modern weddings, evenings, festivities, you become an unwitting witness to how dances are distorted and how carelessly young people treat folk creations.

The Zafak dancers have all the elements of the named dances, and this brings confusion. We must not forget that each dance has its own specific elements, movements, drawings (compositions), which distinguishes it from other dances. By itself, this dance is smooth, slow, majestic. It contains a secret unknown to others. Between the dancing couple there is a dialogue that only they understand. No matter how they distort this dance, no matter how they call it, there is only one meaning in it, the filling is one. In the dance of Zafak there are indestructible canonical, natural compositional rules. It is a pity that few people are fighting for the purity and nationality of the dance, because the people will not forgive us if we do not preserve what it has created for centuries and has brought through all the difficult trials to this day...

Is there any time limit in this dance?

- R. Yu. Tuguz: There are no restrictions as such. This dance itself is long and can be danced for a long time. Previously, the time of Zafak was determined by a dancing couple, especially a girl, i.e. as much as they liked each other, so long they danced. In the case when the guy really liked the girl, he approached the host of the hachiyako wedding and asked to know the name of the girl, what family she was from. It should be added that there are two, four, and eight pairs of Zafaki. When a lot of people came to the wedding, in order not to leave anyone offended and give everyone the opportunity to dance, they did such a multi-pair dance.

What do you think is more important in Zafaq, and in other dances, the dancer or the musician?

- R. Yu. Tuguz: If we judge the role of a dancer and a musician, then I can say with confidence that the main role belongs to the musician, since in this case the dancer dances to his music, and without him he could not dance . This is evidenced by the stories that at weddings the harmonists played their repertoire without stopping all evening in the order they liked. During the entire evening, none of those present had the right to say anything about the harmonist.

- ZZ Irugov: Some wise man said: "Dance is the echo of music." It follows that dance is derivative, and dance without music cannot exist.

Please tell me if there is, in your opinion, any significant difference between Zafak?

- ZZ Irugov: There is no difference as such. All Zafaks are the same in tempo character, they are all played in the same style, so it is not difficult for many dancers to dance even when the harmonist changes melodies during one dance. I once heard from one female harmonica player that the calls on the Adyghe harmonica were specially made in order to warn the dancer about changing melodies during the dance. However, at many evenings it happens that dancers who do not know how to dance well, going out into the circle to dance, when the harmonist changes melodies, complain and ask to change the melody to another one that is more convenient for them. The argument on their part is the slow pace, although it is the same for all Zafak. In this situation, all the misunderstandings between the dancers and the harmonist come from ignorance of the melody by the dancers themselves. In such circumstances, the harmonist should not change tunes during the dance, as in this case he takes the blow.

Despite the huge demand for Zafak and the fact that he is the leading dance of many parties in different areas, he is by no means always the main one.

Let's take, for example, the Teuchezhsky district, where among the youth the leading dance at any celebration is the lezginka, which, according to the younger generation, is easier to dance. Zafak, thus, fades into the background. Nevertheless, in the circle of adults, he remains the main and leading dance.

A similar situation occurs in the Tahtamukay district. In addition to lezginka, there, unlike the Teuchezhsky district, they dance zygatlyat, also related to fast, energetic dances.

As for the Maykop region, here Zafak is in the first place. It should be emphasized that among the Zafaks, the most common and most popular is “Khakulyash”, which is danced here with pleasure by adults and children. But this does not mean that they do not dance other dances, on the contrary, all types of Adyghe dances are quite common in the Maykop region: Zygatlyat, Tlepechas, Zafak, Uj, etc. In my opinion, the reason for this is that in the Maikop region, and in the city of Maikop itself, there are enough dance clubs located in many secondary schools and higher educational institutions, where young people have the opportunity to learn dance. In other areas, there are few dance clubs.

We can say with confidence that there are areas where there are no circles of Adyghe dances. In this regard, most of the youth do not know their culture, their dances.

What do you think is the meaning of Zafak's names with people's names?

- M. M. Beshkok: By and large, they mean nothing. Zafaki with the names of people came from weddings, where, for example, they invited a guy to a dance, which he danced superbly. Based on this, everyone called the dance after him. Similarly, there were Zafaks with the names of auls. For example, if in one aul some Zafak danced more than anywhere else, and better, this Zafak bore the name of this aul. All Zafaks bearing the names of people belong to modern folklore, they are composed in our time.

- R.Yu. Tuguz: Previously, at weddings, in most cases, girls were accordionists. And when they saw that the guy was dancing Zafak beautifully, better than others, she called this dance after him.

Please tell me how many tunes do you usually play at weddings?

- ZZ Irugov: Like any other harmonist, my repertoire is different. It depends on the location of the area where the wedding or other event takes place, that is, in different areas in different ways. There are areas where evenings are held on five or six melodies. I like a lot of melodies, because each one is beautiful and unusual in its own way. But to be more precise, my repertoire includes such melodies as: Shapsyg'e zefaklu (Shapsugsky Zafak), Enemyko iored (Enomuk's Song), Abrej Nukh (Abrej Nuh), Mazdegu zefaklu (Mozdok Zafak), Sh'khashchefyzh zefaklu (Shhashefiz Zafak), Khakulyash (Khakulyash), Islamy (Islamei), Ejerkyo zefaklu (Egerukhai Zafak), etc.

As you can see, the opinions of the three correspondents do not always coincide. R. Yu. Tuguz believes that Zafak is one of the first and oldest dances. Despite this, it does not determine the age of the dance. M. M. Beshkok also believes that Zafak is the oldest and first dance, but he, in turn, determines the age of Zafak by two or three centuries. ZZ Irugov focuses on the diversity of the musical content of Zafakov, the unity of which is determined by the tempo and rhythm.

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