How do you spell dance in french


French for dance is the verb ‘danser’ – Learn Verbs by Pronoun and Tense etc

  • French for dance is the regular ER verb danser, covered here in all the tenses used in modern French.


    To powerfully embed like the French for dance - danser the employment of memory joggers like cartoon pictures showing a silly though memorable scene is extremely effectual.

    So, if you want to know how to say dance in French, how to express the verb in all the main tenses, here it is.


    The 6 Simple Tenses of the conjugated verb

    danser - French for dance
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    Here you’ll learn the conjugations of danser, which is French for dance.
    • I dance.
    • you danced.
    • he will dance.
    • we would dance.
    • they may dance.

    The Verb Conjugating Tables below for danser, encourage you to practise your French verb drills both by PRONOUN (vertically), and by TENSE (horizontally). Keep doing these many times.
  • VERB CONJUGATION TABLE danser
    Simple Tenses danser
    TENSE
    je/j’
    tu
    il
    nous
    vous
    ils
    Present
    Présent

    dance
    danse danses danse dansons dansez dansent
    Past Imperfect
    Imparfait
    danced
    dansais dansais dansait dansions dansiez dansaient
    Simple Past
    Passé Simple

    danced
    dansai dansas dansa dansâmes dansâtes dansèrent
    Future
    Futur

    will dance
    danserai danseras dansera danserons danserez danseront
    Conditional
    Conditionnel

    would dance
    danserais danserais danserait danserions danseriez danseraient
    Subjunctive
    Subjonctif

    may dance
    danse danses danse dansions dansiez dansent
    Compound Tenses danser
    Present Perfect
    Passé Composé

    have danced
    ai dansé as dansé a dansé avons dansé avez dansé ont dansé
    Past Perfect
    Plus-que-Parfait

    had danced
    avais dansé avais dansé avait dansé avions dansé aviez dansé avaient dansé
    Future Perfect
    Futur Antérieur

    will have
    aurai dansé auras dansé aura dansé aurons dansé aurez dansé auront dansé
    Conditional Perfect
    Conditionnel Passé

    would have danced
    aurais dansé aurais dansé aurait dansé aurions dansé auriez dansé auraient dansé
    Imperative
    Imperatif

    dance!
    danse dansons dansez
    Present Indicative Tense conjugations of
    danser the French for dance
    présent de l’indicatif

    je danse
    - I dance
    tu danses
    - you dance - (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on danse
    - he, she, it, one dances
    nous dansons
    - we dance
    vous dansez
    - you dance (formal or plural)
    ils, elles dansent
    - they dance


    Imperfect Indicative Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    imparfait de l’indicatif

    je dansais
    - I danced
    - I was dancing
    tu dansais
    - you danced- (familiar or informal)
    - you were dancing
    il, elle, on dansait
    - he, she, it, one danced
    - he, she, it, one was dancing
    nous dansions
    - we danced
    - we were dancing
    vous dansiez
    - you danced- (formal or plural)
    - you were dancing
    ils, elles dansaient
    - they danced
    - they were dancing


    Simple Past or Past Definite Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    passé simple

    je dansai
    - I danced
    tu dansas
    - you danced- (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on dansa
    - he, she, it, one danced
    nous dansâmes
    - we danced
    vous dansâtes
    - you danced- (formal or plural)
    ils, elles dansèrent
    they danced
    (The passé simple tense is mainly used in literature and books, and is rarely used in spoken French language).


    Future Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    futur

    je danserai
    - I will dance
    tu danseras
    - you will dance (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on dansera
    - he, she, it, one will dance
    nous danserons
    - we will dance
    vous danserez
    - you will dance (formal or plural)
    ils, elles danseront
    - they will dance


    Conditional Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    conditionnel

    je danserais
    - I would dance
    tu danserais
    - you would dance (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on danserait
    - he, she, it, one would dance
    nous danserions
    - we would dance
    vous danseriez
    - you would dance (formal or plural)
    ils, elles danseraient
    - they would dance


    Present Subjunctive Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    présent de subjonctif

    que je danse
    - that I may dance
    que tu danses
    - that you may dance(familiar or informal)
    qu’il, qu’elle, qu’on danse
    - that he, she, it, one may dance
    que nous dansions
    - that we may dance
    que vous dansiez
    - that you may dance(formal or plural)
    qu’ils, qu’elles dansent
    - that they may dance


    The Four Compound Tenses of the French for verb

    danser - the verb ‘to dance’ in French
    Past Participle of
    danser is:
    dansé -danced.
    • I have danced
    • you had danced
    • he will have danced
    • we would have danced

    Compound Past, Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense conjugations of
    danser - French for dance
    passé composé

    Here’s the French for dance conjugated with all the pronouns in the present perfect tense.
    j’ai dansé
    - I have danced or I did dance or
    - I danced
    tu as dansé
    - you have danced or you did dance - (familiar or informal) or
    - you danced
    il, elle, on a dansé
    - he, she, it, one has dance or did dance
    - he, she, it danced
    nous avons dansé
    - we have danced or we did dance
    - we danced
    vous avez dansé
    - you have danced or you did dance (formal or plural) or
    - or we danced
    ils, elles ont dansé
    - they have danced or they did dance
    - they danced


    Past Perfect Indicative or Pluperfect Tense conjugations of
    danser - dance in French
    plus-que-parfait de l’indicatif

    Here’s the French for -dance conjugated with all the pronouns in the past perfect tense.
    j’avais dansé
    - I had danced
    tu avais dansé
    - you had danced- (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on avait dansé
    - he, she, it, one had danced
    nous avions dansé
    - we had danced
    vous aviez dansé
    - you had danced (formal or plural)
    ils, elles avaient dansé
    - they had danced


    Future Perfect or Future Anterior Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    futur antérieur

    j’aurai dansé
    - I will have
    tu auras dansé
    - you will have - (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on aura dansé
    - he, she, it, one will have
    nous aurons dansé
    - we will have
    vous aurez dansé
    - you will have - (formal or plural)
    ils, elles auront dansé
    - they will have


    Conditional Perfect Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    conditionnel passé

    j’aurais dansé
    - I would have danced
    tu aurais dansé
    - you would have danced- (familiar or informal)
    il, elle, on aurait dansé
    - he, she, it, one would have danced
    nous aurions dansé
    - we would have danced
    vous auriez dansé
    - you would have danced- (formal or plural)
    ils, elles auraient dansé
    - they would have danced


    Imperative Tense conjugations of
    danser, the French for dance
    impératif

    danse
    - dance!
    dansons
    - let’s dance!
    dansez
    - dance!


    Present Participle of
    danser

    dansant - dancing

    Menu of Conjugated French verbs like danser


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    Learn the verb to dance which is danser conjugated here online.

    dancing - French translation – Linguee

    A well-made slab will not break

    [...] even with several people dancing on it.

    unwater.org

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    Une dalle bien faite ne cassera pas mme

    [...] si plusieurs personnes dansent dessus.

    unwater.org

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    He tries to play first nations like a fiddle but he

    [...] is only step dancing around the whole [...]

    damn issue.

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    Il cherche tromper les Premires nations, mais

    [. ..] il ne fait que tourner autour du pot [...]

    dans cette satane affaire.

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    When the registration process finally began, the local people

    [...] resumed singing and dancing.

    comfec-cefcom.forces.gc.ca

    comfec-cefcom.forces.gc.ca

    Quand le processus d'enregistrement a finalement dbut, les habitants locaux ont

    [...] repris les chants et les danses.

    comfec-cefcom.forces.gc.ca

    comfec-cefcom.forces.gc.ca

    Putting all of her energy in dancing, she tries to forget.

    cineaubagne.fr

    cineaubagne.fr

    Elle met

    [. ..] toute sa rage dans la danse, esprant entrer un [...]

    jour l'Opra.

    cineaubagne.fr

    cineaubagne.fr

    You follow a dancing point of light until your [...]

    feet land softly on a grassy plain.

    mainc.info

    mainc.info

    Vous suivez la lumire dansante jusqu' ce que vos [...]

    pieds se posent doucement sur une plaine couverte d'herbe.

    mainc.info

    mainc.info

    As the Canadians raised high the cross

    [...]

    to the applause of the crowds, Inuit

    [...] youth began singing, dancing and drumming to the [. ..]

    thunderous applause of the crowd in the square.

    cccb.ca

    cccb.ca

    Au moment o les Canadiens ont lev bien haut la croix sous les applaudissements

    [...]

    de la foule, de jeunes Inuits ont

    [...] commenc chanter, danser et jouer du tambour, [...]

    eux aussi, sous les applaudissements

    [...]

    assourdissants de la foule masse sur la Place Saint-Pierre.

    cccb.ca

    cccb.ca

    Mr. Speaker, the Prime Minister is dancing around this issue just like he did with the other one.

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    Monsieur le Prsident, le premier ministre tourne autour du pot sur cette question comme sur la prcdente.

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    www2.parl.gc.ca

    If we really want to win our publics over, we

    [...] cannot do it by subsidising folk dancing.

    europarl.europa.eu

    europarl.europa.eu

    Si nous voulons rellement gagner la population notre cause, nous ne pouvons le faire

    [...] en subventionnant la danse folklorique.

    europarl.europa.eu

    europarl.europa.eu

    The unsuspecting keepers of

    [...] summer spend the night dancing.

    nametauinnu.ca

    nametauinnu.ca

    Ne se doutant de rien, les dtenteurs de

    [...] l't passent la nuit danser.

    nametauinnu.ca

    nametauinnu.ca

    You turned my wailing into dancing, you removed my sackcloth [...]

    and clothed me with joy that my heart may sing to you and not be silent.

    bonnke.net

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    Et tu as chang

    [...] mes lamentations en danses de joie, tu as dli [...]

    mon sac, et tu m'as ceint de joie, afin que mon cur te chante et ne soit pas muet .

    bonnke.net

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    The three favourite dances for people with motor problems are

    [...] rock and roll dancing, tango and waltz.

    scleroseenplaques.ca

    scleroseenplaques. ca

    Les trois danses prfres des personnes [...]

    ayant des problmes de motricit sont le rock, le tango et la valse.

    scleroseenplaques.ca

    scleroseenplaques.ca

    The evening will

    [...] close with live musical entertainment and dancing.

    chrs.ca

    chrs.ca

    Durant le reste de la soire, les dlgus

    [...] pourront se divertir et danser au son d'un groupe [...]

    de musiciens.

    chrs.ca

    chrs.ca

    There, in the early eighties, a

    [...]

    band of colourful characters roamed the streets, striding

    [. ..] on stilts, juggling, dancing, breathing fire, and [...]

    playing music.

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    cirquedusoleil.com

    Des personnages colors dambulaient sur des

    [...] chasses, jonglaient, dansaient, crachaient le feu et [...]

    jouaient de la musique.

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    cirquedusoleil.com

    Stradda and Circostrada Network offer to download for

    [...] free a sixth dossier, Dancing the space.

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    Stradda et Circostrada Network proposent gratuitement au tlchargement

    [...] un sixime dossier, Danser l'espace.

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    We had one Elder

    [...] doing jumping jacks and dancing to see how his heart [...]

    rate changed during different activities, while the

    [...]

    younger teacher and nurse sat on the sidelines because they were too embarrassed to try.

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    Il y avait un an qui faisait des

    [...] mouvements de pantin et qui dansait pour voir de combien [...]

    son rythme cardiaque changeait en faisant

    [...]

    diffrentes activits, tandis que la plus jeune enseignante et une infirmire n'ont fait qu'observer car elles taient trop gnes pour essayer.

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    If you are fond of the dancing world, this website [...]

    is for you!

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    Si tu te passionnes

    [...] pour l'univers de la danse, ce site est fait pour toi.

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    A European tax may still be "future music", as the Germans say, but if we do not start playing

    [...] it now, we will not be dancing to it in future.

    europarl.europa.eu

    europarl.europa.eu

    Cela signifie donc qu'un impt europen est peut-tre encore une musique

    [. ..]

    prmature, mais si nous ne commenons pas la jouer ds maintenant, nous ne

    [...] pourrons plus jamais danser sur cette mme musique.

    europarl.europa.eu

    europarl.europa.eu

    Ritual may be personal or group in practice--or both--as illustrated by prayer, dancing, and drama.

    urantia-uai.org

    urantia-uai.org

    Lapratiquedurituelpeut tre personnelle ou collective ou les deux comme en on voitl'exempledanslaprire,la danseetlesreprsentations dramatiques.

    urantia-uai.org

    urantia-uai.org

    To this question, Franois Jung-Rozenfarb responds

    [...] that after ten years of dancing, he wanted to go back [. ..]

    to school and registered at a business school in Paris.

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    A cette question, Franois Jung-Rozenfarb rpond

    [...] qu'aprs dix ans dans la danse, il a voulu reprendre [...]

    ses tudes et s'est inscrit dans une cole de commerce.

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    consulfrance-atlanta.org

    Flexibility activities that encourage children to bend, stretch and reach such

    [...] as gymnastics and dancing.

    dietetiste.ca

    dietetiste.ca

    Activits d'assouplissement encourageant l'enfant se plier et s'tirer, par exemple

    [...] la gymnastique et la danse.

    dietetiste. ca

    dietetiste.ca

    He enjoyed singing, dancing folk dances, tell stories, [...]

    and cooking.

    curia.op.org

    curia.op.org

    Il aimait chanter, danser les danses folkloriques, [...]

    raconter des histoires et cuisiner.

    curia.op.org

    curia.op.org

    Dancing, sliding, grooving? but it could [...]

    be getting a little chilly.

    nouvelles.equipespectra.ca

    nouvelles.equipespectra.ca

    On a beau danser, glisser, gigoter, il [...]

    peut arriver que le froid nous s'impose un peu.

    nouvelles. equipespectra.ca

    nouvelles.equipespectra.ca

    The people

    [...] flooded the streets dancing, and rejoicing and [...]

    many of the people ran beside our vehicle for miles as we paraded through the town.

    bonnke.net

    bonnke.net

    Les gens ont

    [...] envahi les rues, ont dans, se sont rjouis et [...]

    beaucoup ont couru sur des kilomtres ct de notre colonne

    [...]

    de voitures lors de notre traverse de la ville.

    bonnke.net

    bonnke.net

    I am throwing confetti and dancing on my desk!

    zazzle. co.uk

    zazzle.co.uk

    Je lance

    [...] des confettis et je danse sur mon bureau!

    zazzle.fr

    zazzle.fr

    Children from the Casa amiga das Crianas, a centre for reception and psychosocial activities, put on a Christmas

    [...]

    spectacle for local children and

    [...] four other associations: dancing, short plays, juggling, [...]

    acrobatics and a fashion parade

    [...]

    to show the clothes they had designed and made, held the 130 invited guests spellbound.

    tdh.ch

    tdh.ch

    Les enfants de la Casa amiga das Crianas, centre d'accueil et d'activits psychosociales, ont prsent un spectacle de Nol

    [. ..]

    aux enfants du quartier et de

    [...] quatre autres associations: Danses, picettes de thtre, [...]

    chants, jonglage, acrobaties et un

    [...]

    dfil de mode montrant leurs propres crations ont tenu les quelques 130 invits en haleine.

    tdh.ch

    tdh.ch

    In this program there

    [...] is much music and dancing and singing.

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    Dans ce programme, il y a

    [...] beaucoup de musique et de danse et de chants.

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    pandemiedinfluenza.gc.ca

    To reflect the story of thwarted love set against a

    [. ..]

    backdrop of tango music, the site was designed as a kaleidoscope of the film, recreating

    [...] its poetic and dancing atmosphere.

    produweb.be

    produweb.be

    Pour soutenir cette histoire d'amour

    [...]

    contrarie sur fond de tango, le site se veut tre un kalidoscope du film, reconstituant

    [...] son univers potique et dansant.

    produweb.be

    produweb.be

    90,000 Dance of French Baroque as a historical and cultural phenomenon

    Author (s): Larisa Dmitrievna Larisa
    Category: Art History
    Journal: “Eurasian scientific journal No. 12 2016” (December) 9000 The number of views of the article of the article : 2883
    Show PDF version French baroque dance as a historical and cultural phenomenon

    Pylaeva Larisa Dmitrievna
    doctor of art history, professor of PSGPU,
    Russia, Perm
    E-mail: [email protected] com

    The article is devoted to the dance practice of French Grand siè cl, considered in the general aesthetic and artistic context of this era. With regard to dance, the essence of the concept of “character” is revealed, which largely determines the content of everyday dance and stage genres in French culture of the second half XVII - early XVIII centuries. The close connections of dance music with rhetoric and the baroque theory of affects are substantiated.

    Keywords: Grand siècle, affect theory, rhetoric, "dance characters" (les caractères des danses), "dance with singing" (danse chantée)

    in France, the name "Grand siècle" ("Great Age") was fixed, it is rightly called the era of dance. Recall that King Louis XIV himself went down in history not only as the embodiment of absolutist greatness, but also as a brilliant dancer. Under his rule, dance art became not only the most important part of the entertainment, amusements of the French court and the aristocracy, but acquired a high social status. This is evidenced by the very establishment of the French Academy of Dance (1661), which unified and consolidated the stylistic foundations of everyday and professional dance that began to seriously develop.

    Following the monarch, representatives of various strata of French society diligently mastered the secrets of choreography. Smooth and refined gestures, majestic poses, proud posture, which were taught by dance teachers, were not forgotten even after a lesson or a theatrical performance. Various dance elements played an important role in the formation of an emphatically refined, refined manner of carrying oneself, which was an integral part of court etiquette.

    Of course, to a certain extent, baroque dance was entertainment, a pleasant pastime, a delight to the soul, but it was only partly such. The fact that politics, mythology, philosophy stood behind it, the cosmological significance of dance has been discussed more than once in both domestic and foreign art history literature. Let us name, for example, the works of T.B. Baranova [1, 2] or studies by American scientists Wendy Hilton [8], Betty Bang Mather [9].

    Something else is also important: royalty and their entourage, noble cavaliers and ladies are depicted in paintings, tapestries, baroque engravings dancing. These facts convince us that the dance was the most appropriate way to conduct a secular conversation, discuss the latest events in court life, and weave subtle intrigues. During the minuet, sarabande or gavotte, the dance partners seem to speak their own special language, communicating their most intimate thoughts to each other. After all, then "what could not be said, about which one could at least sing or dance ..." [3, p. 79].

    The communication carried out in the dance - in the language of choreographic steps, facial expressions, gestures and postures - is non-verbal, but, according to the contemporaries of the "Grand siècle", is intended to "express the whole soul and passions of the represented character, to influence not only vision, but also others feelings and sensations” [11, p. 26]. As Michel de Pur noted, “in dance you are who you are, and all your steps, all your actions appear to the eyes of the audience, showing them both good and evil that art and nature have awarded or deprived your person” [11, p. 28-29]).

    In other words, the baroque dance reveals the properties of the personality, its feelings and moods. That is why such a concept as “the nature of the dance” was firmly entrenched in the practice of that time. It turned out to be especially relevant for the theory, practice and aesthetics of baroque dance in France, as well as for French culture in the 17th - first half of the 18th centuries in general. Frequent appeals to the "characters of dances" (French - "le caractères de la danses") were observed during this period in such areas of artistic creativity as theater, poetry, painting, music.

    In the latter case, it was expressed in the fact that the dance melodies themselves were called nothing more than "melodies with characters" (French - "airs de caractères") [4, p. 77], which had a stable set of means of expression, due to the "character" of the dance genre. The “melody with character” meant a special emotional meaning associated with the dance tune of the chime, sarabande, gavotte, gigue and other dances. It consisted in the movements of the dancers in the space of the hall or stage - in the plasticity of their hands, tilting their heads, in the choreographic steps themselves and their combinations - movements sensual, gentle, graceful or solemn, majestic, proud.

    From this we can conclude that in the dance practice of the Baroque (as in all areas of the musical art of this era) the theory of affects found its expression. Its spread to dance music was observed in various countries of Western Europe. So the famous German theoretical musician Johann Matteson, in his treatise The Grain of Melodic Science (1737) classifying musical genres, among the typical signs of dances, he indicated their inherent affects - “jubilant joy” (gavotte), “languor” (sarabande), “frivolity "(Paspier), etc.

    Among French dances, Mattheson paid special attention to the chimes, giving a detailed and detailed description of its effect: “A masterpiece of lute players, especially in France, is usually a chimes in which you can show your strength and skill well. Passion, or the movement of the soul, which should be represented in the chimes, is a sweet hope, because in its very melody there is something courageous, something striving, thirsty and something joyful: all the parts (Stücke) from which hope is formed” [10, p. 204]. A little earlier, Mattheson clarifies: “Hope is a pleasant and flattering thing. It consists of a joyful desire, which, along with a certain courage, also includes the soul (Gemüth), since this affect requires the most pleasant vocal leading and the sweetest combination of sounds, stimulated by a manly desire - but in such a way that, if the joy is moderate, courage would still enliven and encourage everything that forms the best combination and combination of sounds in a composition" [10, p. 207].

    The theory of affects extended to dancing in France, and the affects themselves sometimes had a purely French specificity. One of the illustrative examples is the sarabande, which in the French tradition was distinguished by a wider range of moods. Firstly, along with the Spanish sarabande known throughout Europe (sarabande grave - serious, important, sedate saraband), the French also danced their own, French, sarabande (sarabande léger - light, mobile, lively). Secondly, the French sarabande itself had several varieties, including sarabande tender (gentle, sad sarabande), sarabande grasieaux (graceful sarabande), sarabande gay (cheerful, playful sarabande).

    Focusing on the type of expressiveness or the "character" inherent in the corresponding dance genre was adopted not only among musicians directly associated with any kind of dance practice. Knowledge of the "characters" of dances was also considered necessary for the authors and performers of instrumental compositions. That is why the well-known organist Andre Rezon in 1687 advised the latter, when getting acquainted with new pieces, to see if they “remind them of the sarabande, gigue, gavotte, bourre and other dances” [4, p. 77].

    Such statements are heard in France almost up to the second half of the 18th century. So, in particular, the composer and instrumentalist Jean-Baptiste Dupuy notes in his treatise on playing the viol: “if a person does not have a sense of characters, it is useless for him to learn to play any instrument, especially since in instrumental music there are no words at all under the notes in order to know all the power and expression that should be given to the sound" [7, p. 7].

    But how will the "characters of the dance" be recognized by the musicians of our day? After all, if we are talking about baroque compositions belonging to French authors, the need for ideas about these very “characters” is undeniable, since it is in the dance genres that the special idea, characteristic of French musicians of the 17th — 18th centuries, about the emotional structure of works is rooted. It was this that determined such an extremely significant feature of the French Baroque tradition as the internal attraction to dancing, and along with it "elegance, flexibility, purity of taste, avoidance of everything that could hurt delicate natures" [5, p. 19].

    Of course, for performers and researchers of French baroque music, the above characteristics continue to be relevant. But it is obvious that for modern performers the definition of the "character" of the dance is quite a difficult task. First of all, “due to the prescription of times”, a special internally organic feeling and perception of dance melodies and rhythms, which literally permeated art and life itself in the Baroque era, were lost.

    Of course, a special analysis of dance music is a significant stage of this path. But it cannot be the only one due to the fact that music in dances (and even more so in theatrical dances!) acts in an organic union with other components of the artistic whole. Therefore, a variety of artifacts can become the key to unraveling the encrypted meaning of baroque dances (especially French ones, which always contained some kind of understatement). It is also obvious that in an attempt to recreate the essence of the very content of the theatrical dances of the French Baroque, it is necessary to draw on information contained in numerous indirect sources. Among them are historical materials, works of documentary and fiction, French theatrical drama and poetry, various scientific works, dictionaries and practical guides.

    The non-verbal nature of the dance and the truly symbolic meaning that it had in the Baroque era naturally lead the researcher to its explanation through the positing of a verbal series. Let us recall that baroque dance for a long time needed the presence of the word, which acted as an important interpreter of the meaning of choreographic ideas.

    In France, this is evidenced by a wide variety of phenomena associated with the history of the ballet genre, in which the explanatory role of the word manifests itself at various levels - from the performance as a whole to individual numbers. As examples, it is enough to point out, on the one hand, French court ballets, where the dance is adjacent to the sung word (vocal and choral numbers) and the spoken word (the so-called recits, i.e. recitative recitatives that tune in to the perception of dance numbers) , on the other hand - danses chantées (lit. "sung" or "sung dances"), sustained in the common genres of that time.

    Modern baroque choreographers are trying to update this situation. An interesting attempt was made by the German choreographer Jurgen Schrape, who performed the original staging of chamber cantatas by G. Bononcini and G.F. Handel. In addition to the singers, Shrape introduced dancers into the performing staff, defining his idea as follows: “The dance illustrates the cantata, but sometimes the cantata is more likely to be inside the dance than the dance inside the cantata” [6, p. 13].

    In Bononcini's cantata "Double Cupid", the basis for the inclusion of dances is the very content of the work, concerning the role of symmetry in baroque art, the role of which is unconditional for baroque dance as a whole. In Handel's cantata "Chloe, Thirsis and Filene", three dancers perform on behalf of the characters, which can be interpreted as a kind of reconstruction of the danse chantée tradition. Its reading by a modern choreographer once again confirms the complementary nature of word and movement in revealing the general content of baroque works.

    The interaction of movement and words is also important in the perception of stage baroque dances. But even in this case, their meaning and the so-called "character" does not appear to be fully clarified, continues to largely remain a mystery. In part, it is revealed a little when studying the works of the 17th-18th centuries devoted to the phenomenon of dance - such aspects of it as facial expressions, gestures, and also describing the rules of court etiquette. The system for recording figures, dance steps, fixed by R.-O. Feuillet, who used the concept of character in the title of his famous work: "La Choréogrphie, ou L'Art de décrire la danse par caractères, figures et signes démonstratifs, avec lesquels on appred facilement de soymême toutes sortes de danses" ("Choreography, or art descriptions of the dance by means of characters, figures and indicative signs, with the help of which one can learn all kinds of dances by oneself”, 1700).

    Numerous and rather intricate conventions for dance steps, hand movements, body, lengthy descriptions of the external attributes of the dance, however, by no means cancel the freedom of their interpretation. This is especially true for choreographic ideas in the productions of French baroque operas and ballets that are being performed today. In them there is a noticeable, and sometimes radical modernization of ancient dances.

    The choreographic component of the performance sometimes becomes too direct a reflection of the life and artistic realities of the turn of the 20th–21st centuries, the era of postmodernism, and there is simply no room left to recreate its historically established “dance characters”; the semantic significance of dance numbers in the performance is leveled. But at one time it was in no way inferior to their spectacle.

    On the other hand, the dance of the French Baroque is how solemn, majestic (remember the French chimes mentioned above, with which to open a ball or a reception at the court in the Grand siècle era was - nothing more, nothing less - the privilege of the king) is just as refined and poetic - perhaps , no less than the dance on pointe that replaced it. Taken together, these qualities allowed the performer, who mastered the secrets of such a dance, not only to please the public (an aspiration that is clearly guided by supporters of the new-fangled incarnations of baroque choreography), but also to convince and touch it. As you know, these were the three most important goals of the oratory, which was the dance before the contemporaries of the Grande siècle - performed either on the stage, or during magnificent palace ceremonies, or in a less official setting of court life. The assimilation of the same minuet or sarabande to the "silent", but no less passionate speech of the orator, certainly elevated the status of the dance as such, gave it an incomparably greater meaning than just luxuriously furnished entertainment.

    To try to reveal the very secrets of the literally magical effect of stage baroque dance on those present in the theater hall is, in our opinion, an extremely interesting, intriguing and more than worthy research task not only for theorists and historians of choreography, but also for musicologists studying theory and history, as well as the performance of dance music of the 17th-18th centuries.

    References

    1. Baranova, T. About the French artistic conception of the early 18th century ("Leçons de ténèbres" by Francois Couperin) / T. Baranova // Aspects of Theoretical Musicology: Sat. scientific works. — L.: LGITMiK im. N.K. Cherkasova, 1989. - S. 61-78.
    2. Baranova T.B. On the cosmological and religious concept of dance in the culture of the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque // Tradition in the history of musical culture (Antiquity, the Middle Ages, Modern Times). Sat. works. Issue. 2. - L .: LGITM them. N.K. Cherkasova, 1989. - C. 35-48.
    3. Bossant F. Louis XIV, Artist King. - M.: Agraf, 2002. - 272 p.
    4. Druskin M. Clavier music of Spain, England, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Germany in the 16th–18th centuries. — L.: Muzgiz, 1960. - 284 p.
    5. Landowska V. Early music. — M.:. Musical publishing house of P. Yurgenson, 1913. - 133 p.
    6. Shrape Y. Baroque painting for contemporary people. Jürgen Schrape about himself and historical dance (interview with Anna Bulycheva) // Mariinsky Theatre, No. 9-10/1999. — P. 11-14.
    7. Dictionnaire de la musique en France aux XVIIé et XVIIIé siècles. Sous la direction de M. Benoît. - Paris: Fayard, 1992. - 218 p.
    8. Hilton, W. Dance of Court and Theatre: the French Noble Style 1690–1725. - Princeton: Edited by Caroline Gaynor, 1981. - 356 p.
    9. Mather B.B. Dance rhythms of the French Baroque. A handbook for performance. — Bloomington, Indiana Univ. press, 1988. - 352 rubles.
    10. Mattheson J . Der vollkommene Capellmeister (Hamburg, 1739) - Hamburg: Christian Herold, 1739. - 504 S.
    11. Pure M. de. Idea des spectacles anciens et noveaux. - Paris: Brunet, 1668. - 318 rubles.

    Develope, jeté batman, tandu batman… French - the language of ballet

    Wherever a dancer works, he will always find a common language with colleagues from other countries, and this language will be French! Demi-plie, batman jete, batman tandu, batman tan d yu jete, ron de jamb pa r ter,…… Stunningly beautiful words and no less beautiful movements! How did it happen that the French language and ballet, and with it all modern choreography, turned out to be inextricably linked? People have always danced, inventing an infinite number of movements. Dance is the most beautiful form of art in which creativity, pure aesthetics, physiology and psychology intersect. In a sense, the dance teacher from the fairy tale "Cinderella" was right: in any incomprehensible situation, dance!

    History of ballet

    Ballet originated from the dance culture of European nations. The word ballo in Italian means to dance, and the verb ballare means to dance. It was in the traditions of Italian masquerades and folk festivals that the vocal and dance genres ballata and balletto were formed - recitation of poems and singing mixed with dancing. Balletto arrived in France from Italy with Catherine de Medici, who brought with her the fashion for theatrical performances and "gallant dances". Once in the luxurious halls of the French royal court, balletto has become more complex, elegant and has moved away from folk roots. The first court Ballet comique de la Reine (Queen's Comic Ballet) was staged in 1581 by the Italian Baldasare da Belgioiso. Gradually, this genre naturalized in France and waited for its finest hour during the reign of Louis XIV. The young king participated in productions from the age of 13, and under him ballet became not just art and entertainment, but an instrument of politics and diplomacy. For example, in view Ballet royal de la Nuit (Royal ballet of the night) the king performed six roles, the performance was performed seven times in front of a respectable audience, among which there were many foreign diplomats. The performance consisted of forty-five performances, in which allegorical, mythological, exotic and chivalrous subjects were interspersed with picturesque and comic scenes. At the end, the Dawn Star appeared, followed by Aurora and her retinue. And when the sun appeared, everyone parted, and Aurora proclaimed in verse: LE Soleil QUI ME Suit C EST LE Jeune Louis (Sun, which is followed by young) . Then the king danced the grand ballet finale, accompanied by Honor, Grace, Love, Dignity, Victory, Fame, Justice and Glory0029 Louis XIV ET LA Mise EN SC NE DU Pouvoir ABSOLU , ABBRULL ABSERO, 2013. Gradually, under the burden of state affairs, the Sun King left the stage, but the court ballet fulfilled its task: it created an “ideology” from the performance and, through the allegory of the victorious Sun, established in the collective consciousness the image of Louis XIV as an absolute monarch. Ballet was the king's greatest passion, and in 1661 Louis founded the Royal Academy of Dance, bringing the art form to a professional level. By the way, the Academy of Music appeared only eight years later.

    The first serious classification of ballet terms was carried out by Raoul Auger Feuillet. In 1701, he published the work of chor é ographie ou ART De D é Crire La Danse dance (choreo arts or art arts or articles of chorerography or choreo art. which was given a description of all dance movements according to the method of dance teacher Pierre Beauchamps. Later this classification was improved by Pierre Rameau in work Ma î tre à danser (Dance Master, 1725) - This manual recorded all the basic steps and movements of classical dance still in use today. They were named, of course, in French.

    A decisive role in the establishment of French as the official language of dance belongs to the French Academy. She did her best to ensure that the vocabulary of classical dance, which was formed during Beauchamp's time and immediately after, remained practically intact in the French version.

    The basic element and starting point of the dynamic part of the dance is the step, and this postulate has not changed since the time of Louis XIV. Each ballet step represents a certain sequence of movements, so all steps are carefully classified, cataloged and identified. The very word "step" in French sounds [pa] - pas , and, as if by magic, these two sounds launch a whole series of images from the world of pointe shoes and ballet tutus in the average person's brain - pas de deux, pas de trois . Who went to dance school in the course! When my daughter recounted what they did in the choreography, I was amazed at the abundance of French words. Without knowing French, the young dancers diligently performed pas droit en avant, pa droit en arrière, pa sure and dedan, pa sure and deor . What do these magic words mean?

    In the aforementioned book Choreographie ( 1701), Raoul Feuillé described and drew five positions of the legs, which had been recorded a little earlier by the royal dancer and dance teacher Pierre Beauchamp. Based on these choreographic positions, all steps, movements, figures, pirouettes, jumps and revolutions are lined up to this day. Choreography is a very methodical and well-organized discipline, everything is thought out to the smallest detail, which allows you to decompose the dance into separate components. All movements are named perfectly simply, logically and compactly. Moreover, compactness is lost when trying to describe movements in another language. For example, develope (developp é) means a kind of batman - the working leg slides from the 5th position with the toe on the skating leg, rises to the knee, extends forward, sideways or back, and then drops to the 5th position. And all this development! Below are a few more examples, but without detailed descriptions.

    pas droit en avant [ ] Step from the right leg forward

    PAS Droit EN Arri è Re [ Pua Anger ] Step from the right leg 900,00029 ASSEMBL [assembly] jump with collection of outstretched legs in the air or jump with landing on two legs0029
    Battement Fondu [batman Fondu]
    Soft, smooth, “melting” movement
    Battement Frapp
    é [Batman Frappe] movement with a blow, or shock traffic 900,

    Balanc 0 é é [rabbit] Swinging motion

    Changement de pieds Jumping with change of legs in the air

    Grand – large

    grand pli 0 é [Gran Plie] Deep squatting
    Grand Battement Jet
    é [Grand Batman Plie] Large Height
    Grand Fouuette [Grand Fuete] 0 The most developed form of wrapper 9000 [fondue] soft, elastic plié in various movements

    Frappé [frappé] batman shape with knee bend; a quick kick with the foot of one leg on the ankle of the other leg with an accent “from oneself”

    The word "fondu" today is known to all lovers of cheese, chocolate and French cuisine, in general. It means "melted", which is quite recognizable from the description of the movement - soft, smooth, "melting". Whichever word you take from this or from another list of choreographic terms, they are all living words of the French language. And what are pas de chat [ pas de sha], i.e. worth? cat step or pas ciseau [ pa Siso] , known as scissors . In fairness, it should be noted that separate Italian terms are used in classical dance, for example:

    Adajio slow part of the dance.
    Allegro [allegro] jumping
    Arabesque [arabesque] flight pose, the name of the pose comes from the style of Arabic frescoes.

    Even they came to all languages ​​indirectly - through French. How did this process physically take place?

    Development of ballet

    French ballet was literally exported to the Russian Empire in the middle of the 19th century, when the choreographer Marius Petipa came to St. Petersburg. Together with him came his art, methodology and terminological dictionary. Not everything went smoothly for the French dancer and choreographer - he saw ballet in his own way, refusing the format of "light entertainment" to which the public was accustomed. As the researchers write, at some point he was ready to retire, but unexpectedly the theater management decided on an experiment - to put the ballet to the music of a professional (not "ballet") composer. Thus began work on the fairy tale "Sleeping Beauty" together with P.I. Tchaikovsky. For its time, it was a pioneering work – brilliant music and brilliant staging strengthened each other without obscuring or competing. The audience was ecstatic! This was followed by The Nutcracker and, finally, Swan Lake. Did you know that Petipa is not the first director of Swan Lake? Twenty years before him, the choreographer Reisinger took up this ballet and ... failed. Now it's hard to believe it, but the fact is that the premiere of Swan Lake turned out to be a failure! Twenty years later, Petipa returned to this idea, believing that the perfect music of Tchaikovsky was ruined by the unsuccessful production of Reisinger. Today, the Petipa-Ivanov version is considered classical and is danced all over the world! Experts say that it was Swan Lake staged by Petipa-Ivanov that marked the beginning of a new page in the history of Russian ballet, and from that moment on, imports turned into exports, which was greatly facilitated by historical events. After the revolution 19For 17 years, Russian dancers poured into the United States of America and the countries of Western Europe, bringing with them a wealth of knowledge and, of course, terminology. This is how ballet gradually developed throughout Europe - albeit far from the French capital and its influence, but using a French glossary.

    French in the modern world of dance

    Today, along with the Parisian school of classical dance, there are various stylistic models in the world, among which the Danish, Italian, Russian (Vaganova system), American and Cuban schools are considered the leading ones. In fact, the founders of classical ballet are the Italian and French schools, and despite the fact that they were influenced by the Vaganova system and certain Russian-language terms, the very vocabulary of the Paris Academy, which began to take shape under Louis XIV, managed to maintain its positions. Even in the work "Fundamentals of Classical Dance" (1934), which formed the basis of her nominal system, choreographer A.Ya. Vaganova used French terms to describe the order of movements in the lesson in order to practice hands and coordinate movements. Exercise should start with plie, then ron de jamb par terre, batman fondue, batman frappe, ron de jamb en lair, petit batman, develope, grand batman jet . We can say, thanks to A.Ya. Vaganova's status of the French language was officially fixed in the Soviet ballet, as Latin was fixed in medicine or Italian in music. This happened in other countries as well. For example, when the great Italian dancer, choreographer and teacher Enrico Cecchetti, who danced on the stage of La Scala in his native Milan, at the Mariinsky Theater in St. his school in London at 19At 18, he taught the English using French terminology. From the point of view of language, this terminology was as foreign to him as it was to his students. But from the point of view of the dance, everything was clear, and this is the main thing!

    At some point, a new phenomenon appeared in the world of classical dance: not knowing French made it difficult to master ballet terminology. The point is not only in terms, but in the logic of the sequence of movements in training and in performance! If you understand the meaning of words développé, soutenu, en l'air , etc., it's much easier for you to remember them as terms. Given the processes of globalization in the modern world, English is increasingly entering this territory. For example, principal dancer or pointe shoes don't cut the ear at all in places far from Paris and France. From this, one could conclude that at the moment ballet speaks French exclusively in France, and the presence of French is directly proportional to the geographical and / or cultural proximity of the modern dance school to France. Music historian José Juan Pacheco Ramos ( JOS é Juan Pacheco Ramos , University De LES Balears ) classical dance. Not always there are direct indications of the need to learn French, because the site is most often conceived as an advertising and marketing tool. And yet…

    American Ballet Theater organizes, for example, Project Pli é to train dancers from disadvantaged social backgrounds who find it difficult to break through to the professional level. The Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet in St. Petersburg independently organizes French courses. Along with other schools such as John Neumeier's Hamburg Ballet, it offers a comprehensive, multi-year training program for dancers. José Juan Pacheco Ramos did not stop there, he studied the videos posted online by these and other groups to make sure that indeed, steps, movements and figures are still called as they were called at the dawn of ballet. Based on all the data obtained, the researcher concluded that most schools do not directly indicate the need to study French, while using the full arsenal of French-language terms, the rejection of which would lead to long descriptive constructions, as we could see for ourselves in the second part of this article. Moreover, in our list, descriptive constructions are halved so as not to overload the reader's attention. List of schools and troupes visited by José Juan Pacheco Ramos:

    1. Royal Ballet, London, UK
    2. Academy of Russian Ballet A.Ya. Vaganova, St. Petersburg, RF
    3. Escuela Nacional de Ballet de Cuba, Havana, Cuba
    4. John Cranko School, Stuttgart, Germany
    5. Academy of Choreography at the Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow, RF
    6. A number of schools in Japan
    7. Houston Ballet Academy, Houston, Texas, USA
    8. Ellison Ballet School, New York, USA
    9. School of American Ballet, New York, USA
    10. Scuola di Ballo del Teatro alla Scala, Milan, Italy

    The sites are usually in the language of the country, have an English version, and their purpose is to attract new students and present their productions. At the same time, French words were constantly encountered by the researcher at every step. And this means that all over the globe from the USA to Japan, teachers and students, communicating with each other in the language of the country, use French terms to refer to ballet movements.


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