How to make water dance

The Leidenfrost Effect: Making Water Dance on the Surface of a Hot Pan | Science project

Science project

You know water boils at 100º C (212º F). But did you know that you can make water dance too? You can! It’s called the Leidenfrost Effect. By adding a water droplet to a pan of boiling water, you can set the stage for H2O to get grooving. Let’s look at the amount of water you need to add to make the Leidenfrost Effect most effective, and get the party started!

How does the size of the water droplet affect the movement of the water on the surface of a hot pan?

Download Project

  • 1 Hot plate or stove
  • 1 Pan
  • 1 Bowl of water at room temperature
  • 1 Bottle of water at room temperature
  • Safety goggles
  • Heat resistant gloves
  • 1 Adult lab assistant
  • 1 Eye dropper
  • 1 Turkey baster
  • Pen and paper to record observations
  1. Put on your safety gear (Be careful! You’ll be dealing with steam and heat in this experiment!).
  2. Place the cold pan on the cold stove or hot plate.
  3. Using your droplet, add a drop of water from a low height (about 2 cm).
  4. Observe and record what you saw. What did the droplet do when it hit the pan?
  5. Turn on the burner of the stove or hot plate.
  6. Add enough heat for the water droplet in the pan to boil.
  7. Once the drop has evaporated, drop an eye dropper of water into the pan again.
  8. Remove the pan from the heat for a moment. 
  9. Record what you observed about the water droplet’s behavior (How long does the drop dance on the surface? In what direction?).
  10. When the previous drop evaporates, use the turkey baster to add a bigger drop of water to the surface of the pan.
  11. Observe and record again.
  12. Let the water evaporate.
  13. Pour a few drops of water from the water bottle into the pan.
  14. Record your final observations .

The drops of water dance in a star-like pattern. The larger the drops of water are, the longer it takes for the water to stop floating on the surface of the pan and evaporate.

The Leidenfrost Effect says that when the temperature of the pan gets hotter than the boiling point of water, as the water droplets hit the surface, the “bottom” of the droplet vaporizes so quickly that the vapor insulates the rest of the droplet and makes it float on the hot surface of the pan. This insulation and floating causes the dancing effect.

If you want to take this experiment further, try testing different temperatures. Try it with pans made of different materials like copper, aluminum and cast iron to see which ones demonstrate the Leidenfrost Effect better. There are loads of ways to try this—just be sure to only change one variable at a time for maximum accuracy of your experiment!

Disclaimer and Safety Precautions

Education. com provides the Science Fair Project Ideas for informational purposes only. does not make any guarantee or representation regarding the Science Fair Project Ideas and is not responsible or liable for any loss or damage, directly or indirectly, caused by your use of such information. By accessing the Science Fair Project Ideas, you waive and renounce any claims against that arise thereof. In addition, your access to's website and Science Fair Project Ideas is covered by's Privacy Policy and site Terms of Use, which include limitations on's liability.

Warning is hereby given that not all Project Ideas are appropriate for all individuals or in all circumstances. Implementation of any Science Project Idea should be undertaken only in appropriate settings and with appropriate parental or other supervision. Reading and following the safety precautions of all materials used in a project is the sole responsibility of each individual. For further information, consult your state's handbook of Science Safety.

How To Make a Dancing Water Fountain?

Do you want to create a beautiful water fountain that dances in sync with your favorite music? This extensive step-by-step guide will help you create one in your garden or home. Let’s dive right in.

Water fountains can undoubtedly dramatically affect your yards, residential gardens, and other commercial projects. If you combine it with lighting and music, the aesthetics will make the visitors gaze for hours.

Dancing water fountains are gaining considerable popularity in big projects and cities with a high influx of tourists. The colorful lighting effect is combined with the gushes of water streams, creating a mesmerizing event. People from all over the world come to such places.

If you’re looking to boost your business by inviting more visitors, then adding a dancing water fountain to your project will do the job precisely. These lights, carefully placed underwater, added with the correct wattage, can easily become the focal point of any project.

But before heading on to place an order for water fountain lights, read this guide to learn how you can create and troubleshoot a stunning dancing water fountain. Moreover, we will discuss the benefits and tips on choosing the best LED water fountain lights.


Music Dancing Fountain

Steps Involved in Making a Dancing Water Fountain

If you’re inexperienced with electrical components, we advise you to help from our consultant to guide you through the process. Moreover, you can always hit up an expert electrician to help with the installation.

Setting up a regular lighted fountain indoors is more manageable, but if you’re installing a dancing fountain on a large scale, you need to ask for technical helping hands.

Here are the major steps involved in creating a dancing fountain.

1. Creating a Layout and Gathering Components

First, you need to define the size of the area of your water fountain. Then look for the design of your cybernetic system. These blueprints will help determine the final water choreography of your fountain project. Since dancing water fountain involves syncing of music with the water streams, the system requires thorough pre-analysis.  

For this part, you would need to define two components, fountain nozzles, and water pumps.

· Fountain Nozzles

Fountain nozzles determine the flow of the water gushing out of the pool. For example, there are mainly five kinds of nozzles used in fountains.

  1. Crystalline Fountain Jets: These nozzles release a laminar flow of water
  2. Rotary Nozzles: For spirals and dynamic water flow, usually used in dancing and musical fountains
  3. Frothy Jets: Create a foamy flow of water; found chiefly in indoor fountains
  4. Spherical Shapes: Nozzles create a disk of water, ultimately giving the shape of a sphere
  5. Spray Nozzles: Such nozzles create a spraying effect

You can select multiple nozzles and arrange them in the Cybernetic formation to create a splendid design. Choose the number of fountain nozzles, types, their placement, the height, and finally, the angle of the water stream that will gush out of the nozzles.

· Water Pumps

Water pumps in fountains are used to pump the water using centrifugal force originating from a propeller. Pumps keep the water flowing throughout the cybernetic system. Now determine the following things to select the best type of pumps for your project.

  1. Submersible or dry pump: The names tell where which type of pump is used. It depends on your project. Use submersible pumps if you’re pumping water out of the pool. Dry pumps cannot be submerged in water. They are placed on the dry part of the fountain, such as concrete and bricks around it.
  2. Nozzles for pumps: Important for pulling off the music choreography of the project. Select nozzles compatible with the pumps.
  3. Pump power: How high do you want your water streams to go? It depends on the flow data that you have written in your pre-analysis document of the cybernetic system. The pump power will be assigned to the nozzles that will pump the water out.
  4. How to control the pump: Determine the type of control you will be opting for. Pumps can be controlled by frequency converter or direct starting process. Frequency converters are used to create the dynamic ascending and descending of the water streams during the dance. If your project doesn’t involve this movement, then direct starting pumps are used. Of course, the latter will be less expensive.
· Solenoid Valves

Solenoid valves are the control elements that can shut down, release, mix and move the fluids. They are responsible for the interactivity between different water jets and ultimately contribute to dynamism. It’s good practice to have a solenoid valve with every pump. However, depending on your structure, you can assign specific water pumps to have these valves.

· Water level controllers

These components control the height of the water stream during the event. Its system automatically handles the maximum and minimum height of the water stream.

led fountain lights

2. Choosing the Fountain Lights

This is technically a part of the previous step. Determine which lights would go best with your desired outcome.

· LED Underwater Fountain Lights

Compared to underwater incandescent bulbs, LED provides many advantages. LEDs are long-lasting, durable, robust, and most importantly, can be controlled by DMX controllers. A dancing fountain’s characteristic feature is the changing colors and intensities in sync with the music.

· Number of Lighting Fixtures

Determine the total number of fixtures you require in the cybernetic structure. In this step, you also determine the location of these fixtures.

· DMX Controller

Determine how you want the lights to behave during the event. You can either control individual lights or group them to perform in a union using a DMX controller. You can change the colors and synchronize them with the music. This analysis goes side by side with the previous two steps of determining the number of fixtures and their placement.

· Electrical Panels

For a complicated project involving music and color-changing lights synchronized to produce mesmerizing effects, you require an electrical panel to easily control all the functions. A custom-made panel will take care of all the controls and perform them automatically according to the feed information.

3. DMX Control Panel Set-Up

The electric panel (as mentioned before), also known as the control panel, must be designed by an electrician before the desired outcome. For this step, you need experts. Some manufacturers will take care of this according to your needs.

· Interactive Fountains

DMX512 protocols are the most widely used systems to control lighting dynamics. It is used to cater to the complexity of the fountain design. You can easily program and control the dynamic using a laptop or tablet from a distance. Or you can automate the system entirely.

For dancing fountains and other such projects, a DMX controller and specific software create the lighting sequences and music design. You can create your sequences and custom output designs as well. This software controls all your requirements in one place.

If your fountain is a non-musical project, you can sync lighting with the dance movement of water only without integrating music sequences. An expert programmer can perform this job accurately! Following is a general structure of a dancing water fountain.

interactive fountains

All the electrical equipment should be installed when the pool is dry. It is essential to check and test the water pumps and lights’ working before filling the pool with water. Make sure all the equipment is fixed at its designated position on the base of the fountain pool.

Troubleshooting Dancing Water Fountain

Now that you’ve set up your dancing water fountain, you will require some tips on maintaining it and troubleshooting if you face any problems.

The most common issues that you’ll come across are:

  • Too much splashing of water
  • Noisy fountain
  • Lowered water pressure with time

To avoid these problems, make sure you follow the following tips:

  • Control the intake of the pump to prevent excessive water splash.
  • Make sure that the pumps you have installed are fully submerged in the pool of water.
  • The pumps should not be vibrating. Fix them inside your pool or place them firmly.
  • Make sure all the connections are tight and secure.
  • Sometimes windy weather conditions can disrupt the waters streams. To rectify such a situation, you can use ‘Anemometers’ to automatically stop the water streams when the wind reaches a certain high speed. These components also help in turning off the lighting and water pumps in great high winds.

Fountain Cleaning Tips

Water fountains should be cleaned and maintained after a few weeks. This is important because water has many impurities which can accumulate in the water pumps, hoses, pipes, and other components. This adversely affects the overall performance and reduces the life of electrical components.

  1. Drain the fountain and clean thoroughly, making sure all the leaves and debris are gone.
  2. Use stain cleaners, scale removers, algaecides, and other water treatments to wash off the clogged pipes.
  3. In some areas, you might find green fungi and algae use fountain cleaners to get rid of them.
  4. Always use environmentally friendly products!
  5. Fill the pool with fresh water and add any good water treatment product.

Fountain Winterizing

In some areas where temperatures are extreme, you will have to protect the fountain and cover it during heavy snow and freezing weather.

  • Remove all the water from the tank.
  • Disconnect all the electrical components and store them somewhere safe.
  • Make sure the basement of the fountain is covered with plastic or hay so that the snow doesn’t accumulate.
  • Cover the fountain with fountain bags.

How can Underwater LED Fountain Lights Benefit You?

Now that you know what components are required to create a dancing fountain let us tell you what advantages you should be expecting from it.

This is a brief overview of how LED fountain lights are your best business-boosting strategy. We have gathered a few benefits fountain lights offer so you can take advantage of them. If you have a dead fountain on your lawn, bring it to life!

These 12/24 Volt Low Voltage LED Fountain Lights can be used in many types of fountains such as a dry fountain, garden ponds, outdoor stone fountains, dancing fountains, and music fountains.

Submersible Fountain Lights

1.  Relaxing Ambiance

The relaxing environment is the first and foremost benefit that a dancing fountain will provide to you and your visitors. This element surely attracts the people and children to an unimaginable extent. In the hustle and bustle of today’s world, people look for such places to visit and calm their nerves.

If you’re looking to install water fountain lighting in your homes and gardens, don’t wait any longer! LED underwater lights can be single-colored or RGB/RGBW color-changing. You can leverage this point and create a healthy environment around your project. This will prove lucrative in many years to come.

The soft and soothing sound of water combined with comfortable and color is indeed therapy for stressed-out minds. Not to mention, the lights give a new magical feel to your fountains at night!

2. Enhanced Value

The value of a property or project can be improved in many ways, such as highlighting important features and increasing security and safety. The look of any outdoor area can tremendously increase the value of that project. These water fountain lights can significantly uplift the outdoor look and appeal, skyrocketing the worth of a property. So, consider investing to gain a long-term benefit.

3. Long life

The life of underwater LEDs is not any shorter than the outdoor lights. LED water fountain lights are highly waterproof and watertight. These fixtures are designed with high-quality stainless steel in junction with other non-corrosive materials to enhance strength and durability. The manufacturers make sure all the components of underwater lights are tested to last long in the water body.

4. Energy Efficient

LEDs, as we know, can provide up to ~80% saving on your electricity bills. It will be remiss not to add energy and cost-efficient options to your projects that can pay you back in multiplied amounts. LEDs do not require regular maintenance.

5. Safety and Security

A well-lit fountain will improve the safety and security of the area. With safety comes value and more visitors. Children can play around the garden safely. The chances of any sort of accidents taking place will reduce.

How To Choose the Best Submersible LED Pond Fountain Spotlights?

To see the dancing lighting fountain working splendidly, you need top-quality underwater LED lights. The synchronized choreography can be affected if any lights malfunction during the event and people can notice the disruption.

· Waterproof Fixtures

The first thing is the waterproof quality of the fixtures. Find fixtures having IP68 or higher rating. They should be highly corrosion resistant and durable in the water. All the electrical components of the LEDs should be highly secure and watertight.

· Fixture Material

Stainless steel material is best suited for underwater fixtures as stainless steel is highly corrosion resistant and robust.

· Small Wattage and High Illuminance

Lights underwater need to be bright so that the fountain pool in the night can be adequately lit. Some of the light disperses in the water, so you need high illuminance.

· Color Options

You can opt for single-colored LEDs or RGB/RGBW options to suit your fountain needs.

· Smart Control

The best dancing architectural fountain uses the DMX controller to sync the movement with music and lighting. Traditional lights such as halogen and incandescent will prove to be non-efficient and costly in the long run. Choose the LED lights accordingly.

· Color of the Lenses

LEDs with colored lenses illuminate differently than clear lenses. The light coming through the colored lenses washes out and doesn’t give the best look. Keep this specification in mind.

· Bright Colors

Since the transmissive nature of the lenses can disperse light submerged underwater, you need bright colors and a high level of lumens.

· Number of Lumens

For underwater lights, the preferable number of lumens is 2500-3500 lumens. The lights should not be excessively bright and uncomfortable for the eyes. Note that the water reflection can cause glaring at night if the light is not positioned well or not of optimum brightness.

underwater led fountain lights

Final Thoughts

Creating a DMX-controlled dancing water fountain requires you to be extremely precise and accurate. Just any person can not do the custom programming of control panels and installation. Only expert programmers and technicians can perform the job well.

On the other hand, if you want to install fountain lights in your residential swimming pool, ponds, and indoor fountains, you can easily install our submersible LED pond fountain spotlights.

Buy Fountain Lights from RC Lighting

Choose the underwater color-changing fountain lights that the smart systems can perfectly control. We offer 5 years of warranty with each of our products! Any tiny flaw can cease the function, so we recommend choosing the products that come with warranties.

If you require consultancy feel free to contact RC lighting. Our LED underwater submersible lights are of the highest quality, and numerous certifications back this fact.

RC Lighting is a lighting manufacturer in China. We provide a one-stop solution for your indoor and outdoor lighting projects. Ask for a quote now!

Make the water dance

Rostov LLC "Artel" exists since 2008 and has a number of large and small construction projects. With the participation of specialists from this company, the Klondike shopping center in Rostov-on-Don, the Nord refrigeration equipment plant in the Matveevo-Kurgan region and many other facilities were built. But the fountain in Adler, which has no analogues in Russia, is considered by the company's specialists to be a source of special pride.

Jewelry work
For the contractor, the difficulty was not so much in the scale of the work, but in the unthinkably short implementation time. According to the terms of the competition, only two months should have passed from the development of the project to the commissioning of the hydraulic structure. Specialists of OOO "Artel" were the only ones among the participants of the competition who agreed to turn the fairy tale into reality in a quality manner and on time. According to Dmitry Nikolaev, the architect of Artel LLC, the construction of the facility in Adler turned out to be a serious test of the company's professionalism. It is rare that anyone starts work without a detailed project, and in the case of the fountain, there was only a sketch on album sheets, and even that required urgent revision. “The responsibility was high, and we had no right to make a mistake,” said Andrey Aksenenko, Chief Engineer of Artel LLC. “According to the requirements of the customer, it was necessary to make a slightly inclined structure of a mirror bowl with a diameter of more than eight meters and install it on a concrete pedestal. The slope was necessary so that water would flow out of the bowl in an even stream, smoothly flowing down the stairs. The lighting installed later was supposed to give the fountain a fabulous look.
Before starting work, the specialists of the contracting company conducted experiments with ordinary steel sheets in the fountains of Rostov-on-Don, sent photographs of the structures to the customer. When they moved from experiments to business, it turned out that there were a lot of shortcomings in the project. There was no time to look for the guilty. All errors were eliminated in the course of work. However, welding a multi-ton bowl is half the battle. It had to be turned over and installed on a pedestal. The engineers came up with a way out: a steel ring was fixed along the edge of the plate, for which the tower crane caught on, and, having made a somersault, the fountain bowl found a stable support. Installation work was carried out 14 hours a day in any weather under two tents covering the structure so that neither rain nor wind would interfere. In addition, various supervisory organizations reminded of the deadlines several times a day. Despite all the difficulties, the employees of Artel LLC completed the installation of the structure on time. The fountain turned out to be amazingly beautiful, and in order to keep it that way, technical solutions were provided that provide special strength so that no one could damage the polished mirror surface of the bowl.

Response to European architecture
During the construction of the fountain, the specialists of Artel LLC mastered new technologies, which have now become a professional secret. “There is a famous English architect of Indian origin - Anish Kapoor, whose work impresses us. So the fountain in Adler is our little answer to Kapur,” Andrey Aksenenko smiles. In a healthy creative climate, and this is exactly what is felt in Artel LLC, there is always a place for initiative. “About 70 specialists are working on projects,” says Andrey Pogorelov, General Director of Artel LLC. - Employees are recruited as needed. This policy makes the company more flexible. The construction base also requires a certain mobility these days. Practice has shown that in the modern world, giant enterprises eventually become clumsy. But the ability to quickly move, reconfigure their production facilities and go to where there is work, significantly increases the competitiveness of any company. Dynamics should never be negative. It is always necessary to increase either finances or experience. Both are valuable." One of the new activities of the company was the development of small architectural forms. “An architect's task is to give a non-standard form to ordinary objects, while maintaining their functions in an urban environment, but, as a rule, interesting solutions are not implemented in order to save money,” says Dmitry Nikolaev. “As a result, customers come to a gray rectangle, which is sad to look at. ” The leaders of "Artel" managed to assemble an active team of professionals, the efficiency and creative spirit of which is noticeable to the naked eye. “We are more interested in objects with individual, non-standard solutions. We are ready not only to build, but also know how to create a unique image of the object, - Andrey Aksenenko notes. “We are waiting for new interesting orders, which we are ready to implement with high quality, quickly and creatively.”

e-mail: [email protected]

Author: Larisa Yurchenko

Using ultrasonic vibrations, scientists made water droplets "dance" right in the air » DailyTechInfo

The technology of levitation of liquid droplets using ultrasonic acoustic vibrations is known to scientists and has been used for a long time. At one time, we talked about the work of researchers from the Argonne National Laboratory of the US Department of Energy and the Laboratory of Thermodynamics of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, who managed to make liquid droplets float and move in space using ultrasonic waves. And now we will talk about a group of researchers from Clemson University in South Carolina, led by Professor Weiyu Ran, who, using ultrasound, made water droplets not only hover and move in space, but also change their shape, performing a kind of "dance ", which was filmed with a high-speed video camera.

Playing with levitating water drops, the researchers could operate with only two parameters of ultrasonic vibrations, their amplitude and frequency. As you can see in the video below, an increase in the amplitude of the oscillations caused the drop of water to turn from a round to a flat disk, and the larger the amplitude, the thinner the water disk became. By adjusting the frequency of the sound oscillations, the researchers ensured that the drop's own resonant oscillation frequency coincided with the oscillation frequency. At the same time, the round disk of the water drop acquired protrusions, the number of which was equal to the number of the harmonic of the resonant frequency.

All these amazing transformations of water drops look very funny. But is there any practical application for such "miracles"? Of course there is. Professor Ren's group played with water not just for fun, they tested the operation of a prototype installation, which is designed to remove particles of various substances from the air flying in it. Such technologies are widely used in mines and metallurgical enterprises to remove dust from the air. But, unfortunately, the traditional methods of producing water droplets are not sufficiently effective in removing dust particles, which are about a micrometer or less in size, and which have the most harmful effect on the lungs and respiratory tract of people.

Of course, the prototype ultrasonic device is too small for its practical application. "Using modern technology, it is possible to create ultrasonic water sprayers of large sizes and high performance. But, unfortunately, their operation requires an unreasonably large amount of energy," says John Saylor, a member of the research team, "Our pilot plant is only proof of the workability of the idea, and for its practical implementation we will have to do a lot of work.

Learn more