How has contemporary dance developed over time
Contemporary Dance – always changing – Dance Consortium
People in the arts regularly bandy about the phrase ‘contemporary dance,’ but what exactly do they mean? It’s a blanket term stretching all the way back to such early 20th-century modern dance pioneers as Isadora Duncan and Martha Graham, names many have heard of, even if they know little or nothing about their owners, and reaching forward to, say, the hugely pleasurable, music-led choreography of Mark Morris, the smartly populist and innovative spectacles concocted by Brazil’s Deborah Colker or the latest, hottest street styles of the hip hop phenomenon. That’s a pretty big blanket, and it covers the entire globe.
Look at contemporary dance as you would a painting or sculpture, or as you might listen to a piece of music. Let go of the self-imposed pressure of your need to ‘get it.’ Now, what’s your response?
Anyone even vaguely familiar with the Dance Consortium, the perpetrators of this website, couldn’t help but recognise just how international the context for contemporary dance has become especially in the UK. Since 2000 the 18 venues that are members of the Consortium have presented work by dance companies from North and South America, France and the Netherlands, and the net keeps widening.
Aside from its world-wide scope, one of the major points of contemporary dance as a whole is how relevant it is to the way we live now, or at least it ought to be. Ideally, it is a very present-tense experience that speaks of and to the time in which it is being made. To risk stating the obvious, that’s why it carries the label ‘contemporary.’
It used to be known as modern dance. If, in some quarters, this particular adjective seems so yesterday, that’s not to discredit those trailblazers whose dance-making changed the direction of an art form. Imposing figures like Graham, commonly dubbed the mother of modern dance, or one of her first male company members, Merce Cunningham, who left the nest and in the process became just as influential an artistic giant.
It could be said that what keeps choreographers like Cunningham, Morris, Colker and other masters or mavericks such as Paul Taylor and Bill T Jones (to drop a few more names whose work the Consortium has championed) going strong and at the top of their game is a shared hunger for the untried and the new. They all delight in making discoveries about movement, themselves and life through their work. It’s this fresh perspective on moving and being alive that all contemporary dance potentially offers any open-minded, open-hearted audience member regardless of his or her familiarity with the art form.
To reduce it to its essence, contemporary dance developed in a rebellion against the hierarchy and restrictions of 19th-century classical ballet. It was conceived as a heightened, kinetic form of self-expression in which each artist was at liberty to determine his or her own creative path. This may sound like the perfect excuse for an anything-goes free-for-all. The truth is that most artists, at their best, are dedicated to harnessing the discipline necessary to realise even their most daring, far-out ideas.
Some apply their training and skills to craft the most sophisticated, refined example of an already established dance form as they can. Others throw away the rule book entirely, experimenting with and fusing genres, styles and influences as a means of finding and developing their own voice, or are spurred on to test and transcend their limitations via collaborations with composers and musicians, writers, visual artists, designers and architects. No matter what the source, examples of bold and distinctive choices in dance abound. (article continues after the image gallery)
- Twyla Tharp using the Billy Joel songbook to fuel her dance-driven Broadway-to-West End show Movin’Out
- Matthew Bourne’s savvy reworkings of classical ballet (Swan Lake, The Nutcracker) and film-to-stage adaptations (Edward Scissorhands)
- Shobana Jeyasingh fracturing the vocabulary of her classical Indian dance heritage by aligning it to the speed of contemporary life and setting the results to commissioned scores from such Western composers as Michael Nyman, Kevin Volans and Orlando Gough.
- Rafael Bonachela bouncing between razor-sharp choreographic commissions for Rambert Dance Company and devising the moves for pop star Kylie Minogue’s stadium-sized tours.
- Wayne McGregor deriving inspiration for full-length dances from medical conditions (Marfan’s syndrome, ataxia) as well as cutting-edge digital technology.
- Lloyd Newson grounding his provocative productions for DV8 Physical Theatre in sexual politics and human behaviour.
- Rodrigo Pederneiras of Brazil’s Grupo Corpo exploring every facet of the human body subject to the seductive forces of rhythm.
- Jonathan Burrows basing an entire (and entirely engaging) dance on two men sitting in chairs gesturing to an unheard musical score by a dead American composer.
It has been said, disparagingly, that contemporary dance is anything you can’t readily understand. The fact is that some work asks us to work a little harder in order to reap greater rewards. Accessibility in any branch of the arts can be a tricky business. It’s kind of like finding a key and inserting it into the right lock. Sometimes the door opens and bingo, you’re in with the ‘in’ crowd. At other times even experienced dance-goers are unable to find not just the key that opens the door, but the door itself.
Good advice for those who find contemporary dance intimidating: Look at it as you would a painting or sculpture, or as you might listen to a piece of music. Let go of the self-imposed pressure of your need to ‘get it.’ Now, what’s your response?
Here’s another helpful tip. The American critic Edwin Denby once wrote that seeing dance is about getting drunk on a performance, then being able to talk about it rationally afterwards. This could be reduced to the ‘drink, then think’ method. Try it. And once you do, you’ll learn just how wonderfully wild and wide the contemporary dance universe can be.
What's contemporary dance these days?
BEST OF 2013: A favourite article from the June Edition.
By Rebecca Martin of Dance Informa.
When I was a young dance student, contemporary dance was weird angular movement that was abstract and uncommon. As I got older, contemporary then became a fusion of the neo-classical style and was very balletic. Since then, the term “contemporary” conjures images of all different styles and genres of dance, most of which have become extremely popular to both dancers and audiences alike.
Contemporary dance is very interpretive in its choreography and often focuses on emotions and storytelling, can be performed barefoot, with pointe shoes, naked, fully clothed, and with or without music. Contemporary dance almost defies description because it can be balletic or wholly abstract, jazz-influenced or lyrical, structured or unconventional. Modern dance pioneers such as Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham paved the way for a new contemporary technique and vocabulary to flourish and influence how we dance.
Contemporary dance continues to grow in popularity due, in part, to its accessibility to dancers. The freedom of movement that contemporary allows affords dancers with less training or technique to still enjoy dance without the need for perfect turnout or nice feet. That isn’t to say that contemporary dance is in any way inferior to ballet. Contemporary dance can be challenging both physically and emotionally and it pushes the boundaries of dance and forces audiences to think and take chances.
Dance Informa spoke to some of Australia’s contemporary choreographers and teachers to discover what “contemporary” is in 2013.
Sarah Boulter teaches contemporary dance at Ev & Bow Full Time Dance Training Centre in Sydney
Who and what influences your teaching and performing of contemporary dance?
Sarah Boulter of Ev and Bow Full Time Dance Training Centre, NSW
So many aspects influence me as a choreographer/teacher: life experience, travel, music choreographic tasks, personal relationships and of course, the dancers and a love for physical perfection.
Two directors in particular have impacted my work: Franco Dragone and Meryl Tankard.
Franco Dragone is the mastermind/director behind Cirque Du Soleil’s O, Quidam, Mysterie and A New Day, to name a few. Franco Dragone is a creative genius. I have never worked with a director that can create such a unique tone, atmosphere and soul throughout one work.
Meryl Tankard, our Australian legend, produces works that have the capability to be incredibly entertaining, staying true to the contemporary dance art form.
Louise Deleur of Lucid Dance Theatre, QLD
I have a strong classical background and my Pilates training in NY and Cynthia Lochard from the Pilates Studio in Sydney gave me a whole new understanding of body mechanics and technique, which I apply to all my training. Style-wise, my main influences have been through the many choreographers I have worked with both in Australia and overseas. My classes are structured like a classical class, however I like to develop movement sequences to both inspire and challenge students.
Freya List, choreographer and freelance teacher, VIC
My biggest inspiration is music. It’s a vital part of creating and provoking feeling when you dance. The music is what inspires us to move the way we do.
It’s always so important to have great teachers who themselves are constantly evolving and learning. A great teacher finds the balance between encouraging individual exploration of movement and explaining how to move like they do. I try to find this in a teacher when training and I try to mimic this structure when teaching.
I’m inspired by the athleticism and strength in movement of dancers such as the Nederlands Dans Theater, who create courageous, strong, yet fluid works. It is also inspiring to see local companies and individuals around Melbourne who trust in their talent and build shows from the ground up. My peers who create movement and explore choices I never would have thought of are my motivation. Getting to watch these people grow is inspiring.
How do you think contemporary has influenced other styles of dance?
There is no doubt contemporary dance is extremely popular. Within the commercial dance scene at the moment there is a notable emerging essence of a more contemporary feel. I believe dancers and choreographers really warm to exploration, individuality and freedom.
Contemporary dance these days really allows you to mix a whole lot of styles and influences together and still come under the banner of “contemporary”. You see freedom of movement, floor work and off-balance moves slip into today’s classical repertoire through to circus performers cross-pollinating their routines.
The umbrella of what covers “contemporary” is so broad, but I would say that the freedom within movement and the abandonment commonly used in contemporary dance influences other styles – when it is adopted and paired with other genres it makes for interesting dynamics. It’s also about knowing where the movement stems from, so each line in jazz can be longer or each hit in hip-hop can be harder.
Freya List in a Broadway Dance Center photoshoot in Brooklyn, New York. Photo by Dirty Sugar
How do you see contemporary dance today and how has it evolved?
Contemporary dance is always evolving and it embodies so much! We have the traditional dance companies, physical theatre dance companies and the experimental dance companies that involve many other art forms.
Within the dance school community there is a large trend towards a commercial contemporary/lyrical dance style. This can be very visually exciting and entertaining, but it may not necessarily be teaching the dancer the underpinning technical foundations needed for contemporary dance. It is important for young dancers to experience more traditional practices so they gain knowledge and understanding about contemporary dance technique, which I feel will bring our dancers more inline with our contemporary dance companies.
We see influences from the dynamics of jazz and gymnastic styles creeping into the umbrella of “contemporary” dance. I see companies being classically based in their approach by their use of traditional methods in their warm-up classes and then relying on the choreographers work to develop their contemporary style. Other contemporary companies use a lot more release technique, yoga and tumbling to enhance their choreographic approach. All in all, “contemporary” is a broad word these days. It disappoints me at times when I see works today that approach contemporary as an opportunity to do a series of tricks with no structure, technique, detail or artistic concern.
Contemporary has come to encompass so many styles under the one genre title. It would be a shame to see it through a narrow mind in both its past and present forms. In my opinion, earlier contemporary styles (such as those danced by Martha Graham) were more free-flowing and relaxed, whereas now it has taken a turn towards athleticism and execution of strong shapes. Currently we sit somewhere between these styles, where shapes, technique and clear positions are executed, but overall we enjoy movement that is very musical and story driven.
What makes a great contemporary dancer?
So many elements make a contemporary dancer great and unique. A contemporary dancer needs to be interesting and distinctive within their performance quality, engaging, creative in the choreographic process, as well as having an understanding of the contemporary dance technique and the physical fine-tuning of the style.
When choosing dancers to work with I look for not only technical ability but also a combination of an awareness of their body and ability to understand movement, an artistic connection to movement and music, personality, reliability, honesty, passion, an ability to creatively work in a team and an artistic depth and performance quality that captures my attention. As artists we all possess different combinations of these qualities and it’s up to dancers (and teachers) to recognise our strengths and weakness to balance, nurture and develop these personal attributes.
Someone who has a thorough understanding of how their body works and what they can do with it. This knowledge then lends itself when exploring what they are capable of and creating a unique style with what only their body can do.
To be a good contemporary dancer you of course need fundamental technique for floor work, contraction, breath, etc. However, I believe to be a great contemporary dancer you need intention and to be able to allow that intention to drive your movement. Someone who can captivate an audience and be honest and truthful to their story – that’s a great contemporary dancer.
Photo (top): Freya List performing 4 Letters with Melbourne contemporary dance company Collaboration The Project. Choreographed and directed by Kim Adam. Photo by Pru Wilson of Boom Media.
Related Items:Cirque du Soleil, contemporary choreographer, contemporary choreography, Contemporary dance, contemporary dance Australia, Cynthia Lochard, dance fusion, Ev and Bow Full Time Dance Training Centre, Franco Dragone, Freya List, Louise Deleur, Lucid Dance Theatre, Martha Graham, Merce Cunningham, Meryl Tankard, NDT, Nederlands Dans Theater, Sarah Boulter
Characteristic, folk dances, modern dance and their characteristics
Throughout his life, a person meets with various types of dances, some become more and more popular every year, others, on the contrary, become a thing of the past.
Today, modern is a popular dance, and for the time being it does not plan to give up its positions.
Modern dance - what is it?
The dance fashion is constantly growing. Not surprisingly, many see this as a great way to express themselves. And at this stage of time, many people prefer to open their inner world to people with the help of modernity.
Modern dance is a combination of complex choreography, improvisation and lightness. However, first things first.
Modern dance: history of development
Surprisingly, this style appeared as early as 1930. The famous choreographer Francois Delsarte decided to create something that will be understood by everyone and everyone. In his opinion, it is movements that can express absolutely all emotions.
His disciples founded the modern. Naturally, it differed from the modern form of dance. Then, the main task of the dancers of this dance was to convey feelings and emotions to the inhabitants, or rather, the middle class. It worked out extremely well for them.
Essence of modern dance
The main idea of modern modern is freedom of expression. Everyone must express their inner “I” in the dance, let the real beast out.
This can be done with hard work, diligence and training.
Modern dance: performance technique
Modern is a complex style. The thing is that you need to combine both classical elements and modern ones.
Every beginner should know at least some basic movements. After all, without them, no improvisation is possible.
The peculiarity of this direction is the combination of external and internal factors.
The outer shell must attract the viewer. Catchy outfits, rhythmic music, plot design - all these elements should amaze and provoke.
The internal component should be no worse. Every emotion must be sincere. If a person does not believe in what he is dancing, this is no longer modern.
In addition, the dance must be in perfect harmony with the music. This is achieved by smooth movements and clarity of execution. Modern is not contemporary. Everything should be perfectly honed and aesthetically pleasing.
Acrobatics are often used in this genre. This is another reason that attracts young people. After all, no one is averse to learning something new and unusual.
How to choose a dance studio?
If you are interested in modern, then you need to find a good dance studio to master it. This is easy to do. It is enough just to use the Internet.
This is where you can find reviews of any place. Based on the opinions of others, you can invest in quality and timely training.
Remember, it's never too late to start dancing. Everyone has the right to self-expression and self-realization.
Report "Modern dance as a direction of modern choreography"
1. The history of the formation of dance modern.……………………………. 6
1.1 The place of modernity in the culture of the twentieth century………………………………….……..6
1.2 The historical situation and the reasons for the emergence of modernity in choreography. .14
2. Modern dance as a direction of modern choreography ………………16
2.1 Modern is one of the leading trends in choreography of the 20th century. 16
2.2 Place and significance of modern dance at present …………………..…19
List of used literature………………………………………. 21
Modern dance is a dance that embodies in its choreography ideas, themes, images drawn from modern reality and uses the main choreographic systems and techniques, plastic skills inherent and used at this particular time. The musical basis of modern dance is independent of time, which is its main and can be a defining feature.
Modern dance, first of all, allows you to return to the fundamental principle of human existence, to your integrity. And such an integral person was, of course, a person at the time of his birth. It allows you to preserve the integrity of the feeling, show its authenticity, allow you to hear your "I", which is quite difficult in our fuss. Modern dance is addressed not to the masses, not to the crowd, but to the individual. It is distinguished by a personal statement, it is addressed to a small number of spectators, and in this it is absolutely natural that modern dance wants to move away from the academic space.
One of the directions of modern choreography is modern dance, which appeared at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century. This style included, on the one hand, the features of an elite culture, on the other hand, it contained the revolutionary spirit of the masses that prevailed at that time. The main task was to bring the high elite canons down to the bottom. Art Nouveau gradually acquired the features of mass character. "Exclusive culture" faded into the background. The originality of the Art Nouveau style was that the emphasis was on contemplation - ethical perception was taken as the basis in modernity. In addition, the philosophy of modernity is enclosed in a certain form, the purpose of which is a harmonious perception. Within this style, in response to the crisis of classical ballet, there were attempts to take a fresh look at dance art, to find other means of expression. From the ballet, free dance was repelled, the creators of which were interested not so much in a new dance technique or choreography, but in dance as a special philosophy that could change life. Thus, in the age of the total supremacy of the classical, historical, everyday and characteristic direction, a new form of dance appeared, called "modern dance". Representatives of Art Nouveau threw away all the canons and set about discovering something new - new themes and plots that they found should certainly be expressed by new means. Modern dance is characterized by elegance, originality, and a high degree of improvisation. Choreography, its form is built in accordance with the idea of dance. Modern dance uses the figures of the classical dance school, but it is still characterized by exclusivity. Much attention is paid to the graphics of movement, the shape of the figures, the rhythm and angle of performance.
The relevance of this course work lies in the fact that at present the openness of public life and the expansion of cultural space are increasing. In this regard, the influence of modern choreographic art on the cultural life of society is increasing. But there is very little special literature on the history of the emergence, formation and development of the main directions of modern choreography, which complicates the creative analysis and training of choreographers and slows down the further development of modern choreography.
The complexity of the study of modern choreography lies in the rapid change in creativity, the diversity of schools, trends and styles of choreography.
The object of study of the course work is modern choreography. The subject of the research is modern dance in modern choreography.
The purpose of the course work is to study the emergence and development of modern dance in the twentieth century.
Based on the goal set, the following research objectives are formulated:
• to study and analyze the literature on the research problem;
• to analyze the evolution of forms and system features of modern choreography;
• identify the fundamental features of the subject of research.
The methodological basis of the course work is the works and research of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of philosophy, history and theory of art: V.Yu. Nikitina, L. Smith, Yu.M. Churko, G. Becker.
Research methods included: cultural-historical, artistic-aesthetic and philosophical analysis and comparison of the choreographic language and expressive means of European and American choreographers.
Course work includes an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a list of references and an appendix with illustrations. The first chapter is devoted to the history of the emergence and development of modern dance in modern choreography and the reasons for the emergence of modern. The second chapter describes the main techniques of modern dance and its significance at the present time.
Chapter 1. The history of the formation of modern dance
1.1 The place of modern in the culture of the twentieth century
1.2 The historical situation and the reasons for the emergence of modern in choreography
Modern dance is a relative, momentary concept. Each period of time has its own musical culture, which gives rise to new types of dance. Each dance can be called modern, but for its time. Thus, modern dance is a modern dance, fashionable and relevant for its time.
The purpose of modern dance is to express the feelings and moods of a person. This is a rather free, universal dance, it has no standards. Choreographers, in an effort to convey the thoughts and feelings of people, are in constant search, and invent new movements, often mixing different techniques, styles and directions. Dance develops, new styles appear. Both beautiful and unattractive aspects of life can be shown here.
The phenomenon of modern choreography is very complex. It has many origins, many directions and even more different reasons for its appearance: artistic, aesthetic, social, economic, political. But most often the birth of modern art is explained by a whole range of reasons, which are largely associated with the emergence of new schools, trends and styles.
Modern dance trends that existed in the first half of the 20th century differed from each other, but among them there was something in common that united them - the rejection of traditional ballet forms, the destruction of the standards of classical dance. The reason, probably, should be sought in the work and works of modern authors - choreographers, in their desire for self-expression, constant search. One of the most powerful incentives for creativity is to declare oneself as an individual, about one's understanding of life and art, one's personal attitude - the artist's innermost desire. To see and embody the world in a new way in his work is given only to talent and a master who, in striving for a new one, expresses not only himself, but also time.
Thus, the first reason for the birth of modernism is the changing life itself, the very time in which the artist lives. Each historical period also contributed to choreography, contributing to the formation of its expressive means. But at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the general crisis of culture affected ballet art, which led to the destruction of the aesthetics of choreography as an art of high ideals and the death of many European ballet theaters. It was the collapse of faith in reason and harmony. In the first half of the twentieth century, the theory of elite, mass culture became widespread. Many Western choreographers responded to these ideas. Their own schools of modern dance began to develop.
The second reason is the patterns of internal development of choreography. The desire to improve expressive means brought choreography to the stage, and the process of its development went faster. The choreography began its development from the imitation of real life. Gradually, the dance moved more and more away from the fundamental principle of life and acquired a generalized - conditional character, being filled with symbols, signs, codes. Choreography has learned to show the whole in one stroke, in detail; she collected a large fund of vocabulary and drawings, movements with emotional overtones. At 19century, a system of classical dance was formed, the language of which was improved, enriched, developed and became able to solve the tasks set by time. At the end of the 19th century, this language could not meet the requirements of a changed life, since it draws the image of a person in whom faith has already been lost. The search for new forms and means of expression began, the era of destruction began.
Chapter 2. Modern dance as a trend in modern choreography
2.1 Modern is one of the leading trends in choreography of the 20th century
Today, modern dance as a dance system combines certain modern dance techniques: the technique of M. Graham - compression and expansion (contraction & release), the technique of D. Humphrey and H. Lemon - ups and downs (suspend - recovery), technique M . Cunningham - spirals and corkscrew turns (spiral, corkscrew turn), technique of K. Dunham, J. Cole, G. Giordano, R. Odums, B. Feliksdal - use of the "collapse" posture, isolation and polycentry, polyrhythm, animation, coordination, momentum and control.
The first teacher, choreographer and performer who consistently created a dance system was M. Graham (Figure 1 in the Appendix), who graduated from Denishawn School. The first performances in New York in 1926 (The Heretic and Primitive Mysteries) brought success to her group. At the first stage of her work, M. Graham belonged to the school of psychological realism, but later she turned to the symbolic and legendary epic topic. The heroes of her works were people of the era of the settlement of America: "Frotière" (1935), Letter to the World (1940), Spring in the Appalachian Mountains (1944). In the future, Graham created performances based on the plots of ancient and biblical mythology. They were characterized by a subtle psychologism in the disclosure of images, a complicated metaphorical dance action: Johnson's "Deaths and Entrances", Menotti's "With Message to the Labyrinth", Fain's "Alceste", Starer's "Phaedra". Form-creation was not an end in itself for Graham; first of all, she sought to create a dramatically rich dance language that could convey the whole range of human experiences.
The second most important choreographer and teacher was Doris Humphrey (Figure 2 in the Appendix). Like Graham, she graduated from Denishawn, but her stage career was short-lived. Due to a serious illness, she was forced to leave the stage and engage only in teaching and staging activities in the troupe of Jose Limon, who continued the performing traditions of Doris Humphrey. Paying great attention to the plastic refinement and technicality of the dance, Doris Humphrey at the same time opposed the beauty and refined stylization of Saint-Denis. Her work was influenced by the folklore of the American Indians and Negroes, as well as the art of the East. She was the first in the United States to teach dance composition and summarized her experience in the book "The Art of Dance", which is a reference book for every choreographer of modern dance.
In the 50s, the third generation begins to create. After the Second World War, young performers and choreographers faced a rather acute question: to continue the traditions of the older generation or to look for their own ways of developing dance art. Some choreographers completely abandoned the experience of previous generations and plunged headlong into experimentation. Many of them denied the usual stage space and transferred their performances to the streets, parks, etc., denied the form of the performance, involving the viewer in a theatrical performance (hapening). The attitude towards costumes, music and other components of theatrical action has changed. Many choreographers have completely abandoned musical accompaniment and used only percussion instruments or noises. Composers often became co-creators of the choreographer, creating music at the same time as movement.
One of those who continued the traditions of the previous generation was José Limón (Figure 4 in the Appendix). His choreography is a complex synthesis of American modern dance and Spanish-Mexican traditions with sharp contrasts of lyrical and dramatic beginnings. Many productions are epic and monumental. Heroes are depicted at moments of the highest tension, extreme spiritual uplift, when the subconscious mind guides their actions. The greatest popularity was gained by his performances "The Moor's Pavane", "Dances for Isadora", "Mass of War Times".
The spiritual "father" of the choreographic avant-garde was undoubtedly Merce Cunningham (Figure 6 in the Appendix). He was one of those who went his own way and founded his own dance school. His performances amazed with an unexpected approach to the movement. Cunningham viewed the performance as a union of independently created, independent elements. Working closely throughout his creative life with the composer John Cage, he transferred many of the ideas of this composer to his performances, built on the "theory of chance". A new understanding of the relationship between movement and space, movement and music gave impetus to the creation of performances that paved the way for the choreographic avant-garde. M. Cunningham believed that any movement can be dance, and the composition of the dance is built according to the laws of chance. The main task of the choreographer is to create momentary choreography, where each performer has his own rhythm and movement. Just like M. Graham and D. Humphrey, M. Cunningham created his own technique and school of dance. A few more names of representatives of the avant-garde of the so-called "post-modern": Paul Taylor, Alvin Nikolais, Trisha Brown, Meredith Monk and many others, each of whom has his own vision of the world, his own philosophy and his own approach to movement and performance.
Lester Horton (Figure 5 in the Appendix) was a well-known teacher who created the modern dance technique. Famous teachers and choreographers later came out of his school - A. Ailey, D. Triit, J. Collins and K. Delavalad. This school laid the foundation for modern jazz dance, the technique of which combines jazz dance and modern dance.
Throughout time, modern dance has evolved from expressing human conditions to presenting movement for the sake of movement itself. Many of those who continued the early traditions used the dance to express the American upheavals of the mid-twenties.
2.3 The place and significance of modern dance at the present time
In one of her books, Isadora Duncan called modern dance “the dance of the future”. And now, after 100 years, we can say with confidence that she was right. Modern justified the legitimacy of innovations in choreographic principles, has stood the test of time and continues to improve without losing its relevance.
If it was originally performed to symphonic and chamber music, today you can see modern performances to jazz compositions and even R'n'B.
Separate elements and principles of movement, developed within the framework of modernity, began to be used in such directions as Breaking, House, Strip Plastic, etc. It should be noted that modernity itself has changed significantly. His technique does not stop becoming more complex and already includes somersaults, handstands, complex acrobatic elements.
Many choreographic schools, colleges and universities include modern, along with jazz and classical dance, in their formal curriculum.
Modern becomes known not only to a narrow circle of lovers of high art, but also to the general public thanks to the productions of such celebrities in the dance environment as M. Béjart, B. Eifman, W. Forsythe, I. Kilian, M. Eck, P. Bausch, P Taylor, R. Bruce, R. Rekhviashvili.
Modern as a trend in the art of the late 19th and early 20th centuries introduced great novelty into modern choreography, rejecting traditional norms and patterns, accepting the exotic of the East and antiquity, creating a free plastic and rhythmic dance language, going beyond the boundaries of classical art, practicality, utilitarianism, symbolism, synthesis of spiritual cultures and non-national ornamentalism. The theory of modernity has become an artistic method of creating reality, transforming the ordinary without understatement, and has given a new reading of classical ballets.
Modern dance concepts developed in the following main areas: modern dance technique, all movements are falling and getting up, dance as a system of relations to three-dimensional space, ugly on stage, a new type of character relationship, more emotional and passionate, movement for the sake of movement, author's versions of classical ballets , shocking, mathematical structures in the dance, going beyond the stage.
The results of the evolution of choreography were: the complication of figurativeness - from the literal to the abstract and the symbol; rejection of the supremacy of the composer and music - the choreographer becomes the author of the performance; the evolution of the lexical language - from ballroom shoes to pointe shoes, from pointe shoes to bare feet; a change in the meaning of scenography - from palace halls to theater stages, from theater stages to outdoor venues.
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Types of dance styles
Dance is a special kind of art in which human body movements act as instruments for expressing feelings, emotions and images, usually accompanied by music. The dance originates in the most ancient religious rites of the ancestors of modern man. The art of dance has developed and improved over the millennia, so it would be frivolous to consider it only entertainment and a way to have a good time.
Dance is body language. All dance movements have their own meaning, it is not just a set of movements, it is a way to say something to people around. Nowadays, there are a huge number of dance styles.
Types of dance directions
Ballet, ballroom dancing, historical, folk dances, modern, erotic, Latin American dances, hustle, swing. Dancing, like the rest of the art, is constantly progressing and reflecting the realities of our time and fashion trends.
This is a theatrical performance where the character, his feelings, emotions and thoughts are expressed by the artists through dance movements, plasticity, gestures and facial expressions. There are such types of ballet: classical, romantic and modern.
Includes two types of program:
They are performed in pairs by a man and a woman. Ballroom dancing is popular all over the world.
This direction includes dances of the past centuries, which are performed to this day and come to us from the Renaissance (allemande, contradans, pavane), Baroque (minuet) and from the 19th century (mazurka, polonaise, quadrille) .
Each nationality has its own dances that reflect the character, traditions and customs of the people. The folk ones include: hopak, krakovyak, polka, lezginka, gypsy, round dance, chardash, trepak and many others.
Swing is a trend that was born in the early 20th century based on African American dance traditions. Almost all dances of this direction suggest a jazz syncopated rhythm. Types of swing: Charleston, blues, jive, rock and roll, boogie-woogie and that's not all.
Hustle is a couple dance performed to disco music. Learning how to dance the hustle is very simple, anyone can perform it, it is based on improvisation. Varieties of hustle: sports, freestyle, show hustle, jack and jill, double hustle, ladies hustle.
Belly dance, striptease.
Striptease is a dance involving gradual exposure of the dancer's body. Most often, such a dance is performed using a pylon (pole).
Someone prefers only the newest and most modern types of dance styles.
The list of the most relevant styles among young people today looks like this:
- electrodance; ;
- trans; ;
- strip dance; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
- postmodern; .
Dance directions: electrodance, house, jumpstyle, R&B, trance and tectonics - these are directions for those who like to light up at discos and club parties. Electrodance and trance dance to electronic music. The movements are energetic and expressive, performed at high speed and with a large amplitude.
Tektonik is a combination of elements of electrodance, popping, techno and hip-hop, i.e. jumps, leg swings and active arm movements. The dance is very energetic, suitable only for young people, while it is rather monotonous and monotonous.
Street dance styles are hip-hop, breakdance, popping, locking.
Hip-hop is not just a dance, it is a youth subculture that implies its own style not only in music and dance, but also in the manner of dressing, as well as the use of slang and its own philosophy. Hip-hop combines completely different dance styles. The dance looks very simple, but in fact, it takes hard practice to learn how to dance hip-hop. Good physical preparation and endurance are necessary, since the load falls on all muscle groups.
Breakdancing is the ideal dance for boys, boys and young men. This is not only a dance, it is a sport, in addition to dance movements, there are elements of acrobatics and gymnastics. Breakdance classes develop strength, endurance, self-confidence, plasticity and form a beautiful muscular body.
Types of dance styles based on classical ballet, which are commonly called modern ballet, are modern, jazz modern, postmodern and contemporary. In essence, this is a modern interpretation of classical ballet, only with less rigid standards. Modern requires dancers to be in excellent physical shape, endurance and good stretching. Contemporary, on the contrary, does not impose strict requirements, you can start practicing this type of dance at any age, a slim figure, physical fitness and flexibility are not important.
Contemporary dancing barefoot. This dance is based on the martial arts of the East. Contemporary perform solo, duet, in pairs or as a group. The main thing in this type of dance is self-expression.
Latin American dances
Types of dance styles of Latin American origin: bachata, Argentinean tango, merengue, mambo, salsa, lambada, flamenco, capoeira, bolero.
Bachata is one of the most popular Latin dances today, just like capoeira. Bachata is a pair dance.
Capoeira is a Brazilian martial art that combines acrobatics, kicks and is performed to music. Among Latin American dances there are such types of dance directions where they stamp their feet and clap their hands, for example, the famous flamenco. This dance is performed to the guitar with percussion, sometimes the dancers use castanets.
Modern dances for girls
The most popular types of dance styles for girls today: strip plastic, go-go, belly dance, pole dance. Belly dancing is suitable for girls and women of any age and with any complexion. Oriental dance classes will help you to always be beautiful, slim and desirable, the figure will become more feminine, the movements will become graceful, the habit of stooping will disappear. Belly dancing is very beneficial for women's health.
Strip plastic is a direction for girls without complexes or for those who want to get rid of them. Strip plastic surgery is the key to a beautiful figure. This type of dance will allow you to gain self-confidence, liberate yourself, become irresistible in the eyes of your beloved man.
Go-go is a club dance that will allow every girl to become the star of the dance floor, it is close to strip plastic, but differs from it in that its movements are more aggressive and fast. This type of dance is performed not only by disco lovers, but also by professional dancers in clubs. The clothes of professional go-go dancers are panties, shorts, bodice and stilettos. To practice go-go professionally, you need to have a perfect figure.
Pole dance (pole) is a direction that is based on a combination of dance elements with gymnastics and acrobatics. One of the most difficult types of dance art, for mastering which you need to be in good physical shape and training. Pole dancing competitions are held.
Dances for children
The types of dance directions for children are slightly different from those offered for adults. These are hip-hop, go-go, belly dance, tectonics, breakdance, ballroom dancing, classical ballet, jazz, modern, dances of the peoples of the world and so on. For children, dancing is very useful, they will help improve posture, promote physical development and form a beautiful figure. Children learn everything much faster than adults, they have more energy and a more flexible body. In the modern world, there are various types of dance styles. The pictures in this article show some of them. Gradually, dance styles develop, improve, new ones appear on their basis, as each generation seeks to express itself, its thoughts and feelings in its own way. Nowadays, people of all ages, from children to seniors, can find a dance style that suits them.
Encyclopedia of Dance: Modern
Modern is a dance that has broken free. Choreographers and dancers put emotions and feelings in the center of attention, and they sought to express them in the free flight of creative thought, not chained to the strict framework of classical choreography.
The 20th century rapidly entered the historical arena. New times dictated new trends in art. In music and literature, theater and ballet, there was an active search for progressive forms of expression. A new movement has emerged in dance art that rejects the canons of classical stage choreography. It was called differently: free dance, sandal dance, Duncanism, rhythmoplastic dance, etc. In the USA, a new term has appeared that combines the whole variety of varieties of choreography that rejects classical traditions - modern.
The history of the origin of dance
Modern is a modern choreographic trend that originated in the USA and Germany in the late 19th - early 20th century. The ideas of modernity were first expressed by the French teacher and stage choreography theorist Francois Delsarte, who argued that all the richness of human feelings and emotions cannot be contained in the standard elements of classical dance. Only choreography free from conventions is capable of this.
Delsarte's ideas were embodied on stage by two American dancers who visited Europe on tour. Loie Faller demonstrated new plastic surgery in Paris in 1892 in the dance "Serpentine", which combined spontaneous free movements and a costume of huge panels fluttering in the dance. The costume during the performance served as a demonstration of progressive self-expression.
Isadora Duncan developed the ideas of dance free from conventions. She is considered the founder of the modern dance direction. The famous dancer did not create her own school, but opened the way for something new in art.
E. Jacques-Dalcroze outlined another direction in the Art Nouveau style. His productions of "Echo and Narcissus" (1912) and "Orpheus" (1913) embody the ideas of rhythm - the advantage of music over dance. During the 20th century, many schools of modernity were created, each of which has its own characteristics and embodies its own ideas.
Art Nouveau schools and trends and their features
Choreography by Isadora Duncan
Isadora Duncan considered nature as the main source of inspiration. It is in her, in her opinion, that one should draw naturalness and simplicity of movements. In art, she preached the ideas of antiquity - humanism, appeal to man. Dance, first of all, in her opinion, should reflect human feelings, and they cannot be dissected, decomposed into elements. This means that it is necessary to free the dance from any conventions - theatrical, social, historical, domestic. The idea and content of the dance will themselves suggest ways of expressing it. Improvisation played a big role in the dance. Duncan's innovation was to abandon the traditional ballet costume, dance barefoot, turning to chamber and symphonic music.
Isadora Duncan's choreography was not technically complex, the emphasis was on conveying the subtlest emotional nuances. The dancer called modern the dance of the future, which we are seeing today.
Rhythm by E. Jacques-Dalcroze
This trend of Art Nouveau opposes the choreography of Isadora Duncan. Jacques-Dalcroze called his direction in dance rhythmic or rhythmoplastic dance. He assumed the following of dance after music and non-emotional embodiment of movements. The choreography was created on the principle of counterpoint: the dancers displayed the musical themes that sounded from different instruments. But Jacques-Dalcroze failed to create a dance without emotions. In his ballet performances, there are also feelings and emotions embodied by dance means.
R. Laban - modern dance theorist
The Austrian choreographer R. Laban did not support the ideas of Jacques-Dalcroze about the dominance of music over dance. To formulate the basic concepts of modern dance, he turned to the philosophical and aesthetic teachings of the Neoplatonists, Pythagoreans, treatises of ancient India. He comprehended the acquired knowledge and embodied in the work "Kinetography", where he outlined the universal concept of plastic expression. Laban formulated the main idea of modern dance - the dance movement must be meaningful, passed through the spiritual sphere.
Further development of modern dance
Laban's student Kurt Joss followed the path of creating a modern dance theater. As auxiliary means in the choreographic performance, he used choral recitation, music, scenography, elements of the mystery theater. But the dominant role has always been given to dance. Kurt Joss proposed an innovative theme for performances - political, anti-war.
Another student of Laban, the German dancer Mary Wigman, also brought something new to modern dance. She depicted in the dance the truth of life, which was considered unsightly. The dancer considered the terrible, ugly and tragic aspects of life worthy of embodiment on stage. She refused beautiful choreographic movements, her performances were distinguished by tension and emotionality. Among human emotions, Mary Wigman was primarily interested in fear, longing, despair and hopelessness.
Meri Wigman's line in art was continued by her students Hania Holm, Greta Palucca, I. Georgi, M. Terpis and others.
History of modern dance
Modern dance appeared at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the USA and Germany. In America, the name was associated with stage choreography that opposed the standard forms of ballet. For those who practiced modern dance, it was important to present a choreography of a new order, corresponding to the man of the new century and his spiritual needs. The principles of such art can be considered the negation of traditions and the transmission of new stories through unique elements of dance and plasticity. In their long war with clichés, modernist dancers were unable to completely abandon traditional ballet forms. They put up with some technical tricks. For each representative of modern dance, the main form was not, it was important to convey to the viewer a certain meaning, experience, emotions. Unlike jazz or classical dance, this direction, like no other, is associated with the names of its performers and choreographers, since it was created on the basis of the work of a particular person.
The birth of modern dance
Modern is considered to be the dances founded by Isadora Duncan. She was inspired by nature and promoted freedom of movement, their spontaneity. Isadora's dance was an improvisation without special costumes and shoes with live music.
Another resource for the emergence of modern dance is rhythm, the system of Jacques-Dalcroze. The Swiss teacher and composer interpreted music analytically and without emotional perception. The dance served as a kind of counterpoint. Already in his first productions, Dalcroze indulged in the complete subordination of dance to music. In response to him at 19In 28, the work of the Austrian choreographer R. Laban "Kinetography" was published, where it was argued that the movement is justified by the inner world of the creator, and does not serve as the basis for music.
Further development of modern
Kurt Joss, who was closely acquainted with Laban, worked on the creation of a new dance theater. Music, scenography, choral recitation were involved in his arsenal. He was interested in theaters of mysticism and cult. All this was aimed at revealing the energy of body movement. Joss introduced new themes, such as political ballets. His work was continued by the student Mary Wigman. The woman found expression in expressionism, introducing the terrible and ugly into Art Nouveau (dance), staging tense and dynamic productions, tending to express universal human emotions.
After Wigman, thanks to her students, two main branches of dance development were formed. One demonstrated an expressionistic perception, the subjective impressions of a dancer, a desire to expose the unconscious, the true in a person. Representatives of this trend were able to express themselves in the so-called absolute dance. The second group was significantly influenced by abstractionism and constructivism. For the dancers, the form was not just an expressive means, but the content of the image.
Jazz-modern: dance of the new time
Later, a new direction appeared - modern jazz, which today captivates with its unique contrast of white classics and black jazz. Dancers use pas from classical ballet and broken movements from modern, waves from latin dances and jumps from hip-hop, break elements. This does not create an eclectic effect, on the contrary, it helps the dancer to fully express himself in an energetic and plastic composition. Jazz modern is a dance that has a wide range of means of expression in its arsenal. Due to this, he is free and spectacular, in no way limits the dancer. Modern jazz is considered a difficult dance, because, in addition to technique, the performer needs strength, endurance, inspiration and clear thinking.
It is important to learn tension/relaxation and isolation techniques during class. Isolation is a technique in which body parts perform movements without interfering with each other. It requires additional training, it looks especially spectacular and delightful. The technique of isolation is associated with the ability to strain one part of the body and at the same time relax the other. Improvisation is important in modern jazz dance. The sensuality of modernity is intertwined with the plasticity of the classics; in combination with the rhythms of jazz, unique creations arise, the source of which is the soul of the choreographer. That is why modern jazz (dance) has acquired the name of dance for special personalities.
Cuba has its own school where modern dance is taught. Modern troupes are most common in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Argentina. The history of modern dance has had a significant influence on classical patterns. Many choreographers of the twentieth century could not get past the introduction of modern elements into their works.
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CONTEMPORARY DANCE IN PERFORMANCE ART
Contemporary dance in performance art
Abstract: Until recently, modern dance has developed in the shadow of classical ballet and other types of stage choreography. Despite the lack of a single explication of the concept of "modern dance", its popularity has recently increased quite a lot. Fed up with classical performances at concert venues, choreographers were looking for new forms to demonstrate their productions to the public. Performance has become such a new form. This form of art turned out to be optimal for supporters of modern dance, because it fully allowed them to broadcast art to the masses. In this article, the reader can get acquainted with the main directions of modern choreography, as well as choreographers and performers of this style. The concept of "performance" is considered, some of its principles, which were used by choreographers when creating their performances, are characterized. The interaction of performers and spectators during the performance is analyzed.
Keywords: modern dance, performance, postmodernism, modern choreography, free movement, improvisation.
For citation: Shevlyakova D. D., Fesenko A. V. Modern dance in the art of performance // Bulletin of the Moscow State University of Culture and Arts. 2021. No. 2 (100). pp. 147-153. https://doi.Org/:10.24412/1997-0803-2021-2100-147-153
CONTEMPORARY DANCE IN THE ART OF PERFORMANCE Daria D. Shevlyakova1, Andrei V. Fesenko2
Abstract: Until recently, modern dance developed in the shadow of classical ballet and other types of stage choreography. Despite the lack of a unified explication of the concept of "modern dance",
SHEVLYAKOVA DARYA DMITRIEVNA - Undergraduate at the Department of Culturology, Faculty
of State Cultural Policy DARIA DMITRIEVNA SHEVLYAKOVA - Undergraduate at the Department of Culturology, the Faculty
of State Cultural Policy, the Moscow State Institute of Culture FESENKO ANDREI VASILIEVICH - Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Cultural Studies, Faculty of State Cultural Policy, Moscow State Institute of Culture
FESENKO ANDREI VASILYEVICH - PhD in Pedagogy Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of Culturology, the Faculty of State Cultural Policy, the Moscow State Institute of Culture
© Shevlyakova D. D., Fesenko A. V., 2021
its popularity has grown quite strongly lately. Fed up with classical performances at concert venues, choreographers were looking for new forms to demonstrate their performances to the public. Performance has become such a new form. This form of art turned out to be optimal for supporters of modern dance, because it fully allowed them to broadcast art to the masses. In this article, the reader can get acquainted with the main directions of modern choreography, as well as choreographers and performers of this style. The concept of "performance" is considered, a description of some of its principles, which were used by choreographers for creating their performances. The interaction of performers and spectators during the performance is analyzed.
Keywords: modern dance, performance, post-modernism, modern choreography, free movement, improvisation.
For citation: Shevlyakova D. D., Fesenko A. V. Contemporary dance in the art of performance. The Bulletin of Moscow State University of Culture and Arts (Vestnik MGUKI). 2021, no. 2 (100), pp. 147153. (In Russ.). https://doi.org/10.24412/1997-0803-2021-2100-147-153
Recently, the popularity of modern dance as one of the areas of choreographic art is becoming increasingly widespread, you can get acquainted with it not only within the framework of the chamber stage art, but also in a rather everyday environment, since it has a number of properties that resonate in the hearts of the audience. However, so far, despite numerous studies in this area, there is no unambiguous definition of the phenomenon of "modern dance". Methods and methods of various sciences were used to study this concept, ranging from theater and musicology to the humanities, such as art history, sociology, anthropology, psychology, etc. Therefore, before considering modern dance as part of a performance, let us designate what exactly we will understand by this phrase.
In the 20th century, the postmodern era affected and influenced all areas of art. Dance also did not stand aside - classical ballet receded into the background, giving way to something new, which had no analogues at that time. The Society made attempts to go beyond the bounding
limits in the field of art. As a result of such searches in the field of choreography, the following directions can be distinguished:
1. Contemporary dance (Contemporary Dance) - the direction is more focused on the physicality of the dancer, conscious control of the body, the study of one's physical capabilities, as a result of which a choreographic vocabulary different from others is formed . Existing techniques and styles are used as "material". The main task of the performer is to demonstrate to the viewer not only his physical data, but also his individuality, to show his worldview, attitude, his view of art.
Modern dance is a synthesis of philosophy and movement. We can safely say that Contemporary Dance is now the most popular style, since it does not have any clear boundaries, which allows it to be accessible to most people, both visually and in its performance.
2. Free plastic dance - direction, whose founder is considered to be Isadora Duncan. It was thanks to her that the dance began to expand its boundaries, which had already begun to put pressure on the public by that time. Its Dong-9 system0003
kan associated with ancient Greek dance. For example, she performed barefoot and in a chiton, which caused some indignation among the audience. In her creative searches, the dancer turned for inspiration to the works of famous philosophers, poets, composers, in particular W. Whitman, R. Wagner and F. Nietzsche. Influenced by the philosophy of Nietzsche, Duncan thought about creating a new person for whom dance should become more than natural. With this message, she wrote the book "Dance of the Future", where she presented the main idea that dance should become a natural continuation of human movement, a reflection of the emotions and character of the performers. The impulse for the emergence of dance should be the language of the soul. “I fled Europe from art, which is closely related to commerce. To the coquettish, graceful, but affected gesture of a beautiful woman, I prefer the movement of a hunchbacked creature, but inspired by an inner idea. There is no such posture, no such movement or gesture that would be beautiful in itself. Any movement will be beautiful only when it truthfully and sincerely expresses feelings and thoughts. The phrase "beauty of lines" in itself is an absurdity. A line is only beautiful when it is directed towards a beautiful goal. As a result of Duncan's work, no specific dance system or technique arose, but her experience was useful in the formation and formation of modern dance.
3. Modern dance (Modern Dance) - one of the areas of modern dance art, the formation of which began in the late XIX - early XX century in Germany and the United States. The term "modern dance" was used in the USA to designate a new choreographic style, whose representatives
denied the forms and standards of classical ballet and tried to express their emotions and feelings with the help of movements unusual for that time and convey them to the audience. The naturalness of forms and the organicity of movements is the main goal of modernity. The leading representatives of modern dance are Doris Humphrey, Charles Weidman, Mary Wigman, Chania Holm, Jose Limon, Lester Horton, Eric Hawkins, Anna Sokolof, Loi Fuller, Martha Graham, Ruth Saint Denis, Ted Shawn. Most of them developed their own techniques and had a sufficient number of followers, most of the techniques are relevant to our time. Outstanding choreographers working in this direction managed to develop a certain system, they used elements of the classical exercise, which were interpreted in a new technique, additional elements were included there.
4. Postmodern dance (Postmodern Dance) - a modern movement, the origin of which is described in the 1980 book Terpsichore in Sneakers. Leading researcher of postmodern dance, Sally Baines, argues that Yvonne Reiner coined the term to somehow separate the new concept of dance from the modern dance that monopolized all of New York.
Reiner's statements eventually led to the creation of a postmodern dance manifesto - "No Manifesto": "No spectacle, no virtuosity, no transformations and magic and fantasies, no glamor and superiority of the star image, no heroic, no anti-heroic, no stupid images, no participation of the performer and the viewer, no style, no camp-pu, no seduction of the viewer by the tricks of the performer, no eccentricity, no active and passive movement” .
E. V. Kiseeva, in turn, notes: “The new type of choreography could just as well be called anti-modern dance, it would be even closer to the essence. You can accurately name the date of birth of postmodern dance. He was born in New York, in the building of the Judson Church on July 6, 1962. Postmodern choreographers can be safely called radicals - they zealously abandoned everything that was somehow connected with modernity: from heroes, myths, philosophy and psychology, costumes, music, stage. The body is at the forefront. Now any movement - be it walking, running, any gestures, combing hair, brushing sweat from the forehead - everything becomes a dance. Postmodernists were also little interested in public opinion, so there were few spectators at the performances. The stage could also be anything: parks, forests, streets, rooftops, galleries, lofts, churches, and so on. “So the lights, the music, the costumes, the props disappear from the new dance: the light is the sun, the music is the rhythmic beat of the construction site, the horns of New York taxis or the rustle of leaves in Central Park, the costumes are everyday comfortable clothes, and the props are what what is around the artist” . The frames were also removed from the performers, any person, whether he was a professional dancer or an ordinary worker, could take part in the performances of postmodernists - “the original unofficial slogans of postmodern dance can be considered: “Any person is a dancer”, “Any movement is a dance”. And also: "Less is more" (in the original: "Any person is a dancer, any movement is a dance; Less is more")" . Thanks to its independence from the place, music, lighting, etc. choreographers who adhere to this
direction, they began to actively organize performances.
In the second half of the 20th century, changes also affected the principles of creativity in general. The most important are: "expanding the boundaries of artistic creativity and introducing elements of a finished reality into a work, asserting the primacy of an artistic idea over an object of art and the process of creating an essay over a finished opus, interest in "live" art and the inclusion of viewers in the process of composing" . In connection with the changes that have taken place in the field of art, the performance-mansion is becoming a universal form for the implementation of the author's ideas. The reformers in this case were the composers and choreographers of New York, who denied the European tradition in art and advocated a "general renewal of art." Not the last role in the development of new trends in choreography was played by the concept of J. Cage. It is based on the departure of music and choreography from modernism, which consists in a non-purposeful act of creativity, the method of chance and the principle of uncertainty. The most important thing in performance is an experiment: “This is just an action, the result of which cannot be foreseen ... Among those actions, the result of which cannot be foreseen, the actions that come from random operations are useful” (J. Cage) .
The venues actively used the ideas of the avant-garde theater. In their work, the choreographers abandoned the principles of linear dramaturgy, actively used improvisation and tried to involve the audience in every possible way. Rarely, when the choreography was thoroughly staged, the basis of the performances were artificially created situations where the performers
directly encountered the recipient and already together resolved the conflict that had arisen, while each acquired the corresponding sensory experience. Spectators became participants in the action, and this involvement in a certain mystery of art - the act of creation, resonated in a special way in their souls and hearts. From the point of view of choreography, as it was said earlier, there were practically no staged movements, for the performers the idea of bodily “being” was important, which was facilitated by improvisation. Her goal is to be and work in a continuous flow, “the process of self-knowledge, meditation, observation of movement was important” .
In connection with the trend away from traditional choreographic scores, a new concept of “scoring” has arisen: “choreography is a more fixed, structured way of working, while scoring characterizes the sequence of actions in space and time ... It will always be a process in in which many people participate and are associated. [cit. according to: 7]. Since postmodern dance denied the forms that existed in choreography, everyday movements were often deliberately used on the stage in absolutely any manifestations and forms.
The same applies to musical accompaniment, when instead of finished compositions, sounds familiar to our ear were used. Moreover, these were rarely full-fledged works, only if this was necessary for the author to fully implement his idea. Most often it was city noise, the rustle of leaves, the murmur of water, the voices of people, etc. The soundtrack could be random, or could be prepared in advance. Thus, music also became a participant in the performance and had its influence both on the performers and on the spectator. Such sacralization of the “profane” certainly had a certain impact on the recipient. This idea of “understanding the inherent value of a single gesture, originality in the approach to their (gestures) connection, to the sequential flow of movements - was developed in the work of many choreographers: T. Brown, S. Paxton, M. Monk, L. Childs” [ 6]. Such a transfer of everyday movements to the stage was due to the choreographers' search for an "objective beginning", the natural beauty of movements in nature. The works of M. Cunningham, A. Halprin, T. Brown, L. Childs relied on the direct life process, reflected the phenomena and events of the surrounding reality, thereby turning into "environmental art".
In addition to experimenting with the body and movements, some choreographers, notably Cunningham, saw the point in the different use of time and space in choreography: if “. .. the main structure is to make the space of time, in which anything can happen in any sequence .. ... and any amount of time the movement may be absent, then the account in such a structure becomes the key to freedom ". The principle of randomness was also actively used by choreographers and composers, for example, to determine the number of movements or their location, Cunningham threw lots or guessed according to the Book of Changes. The same method could be used in music, when the finished composition could be cut into pieces and swapped so that the resulting work fully reflected the idea.
So, the main task that the performance should solve is “the transition of understanding a work of art as an object to understanding it as a process” . Therefore, not a single performance is repeated “verbatim”, each time everything happens in front of the viewer in a new way, more and more new variations are introduced both in the structure and in the location, musical accompaniment, not to mention the movements of improvising performers, the presence of another viewer who has a direct influence on the course of events of the presentation. In principle, such a dance cannot be performed in the same way every time, this is influenced by many factors, ranging from the mood of the performer / her to the characteristics of the location.
But although the performance is the most unpredictable, after each performance, what happened is analyzed and the necessary conclusions are drawn for future performances in order to have an even greater impact on the viewer. “The self-value of the creative experiment, the denial of the traditional understanding of the artistic image, dramaturgy, compositional techniques, inherited by composers and choreographers from the art of the avant-garde, contributed
to the formation of the original artistic world of compositions, the development of original vocabulary” . Thus, despite the desire to get away from any canons and rules of modernism, a certain system of methods and principles has nevertheless emerged in the art of performance that anyone can use.
Over time, of course, more and more new methods appear - modern technical equipment allows you to use many specific effects and literally create new worlds.
With the development of media culture and social networks, the performance has reached a new level - it has become even more massive, has found more venues. Other areas of art also bring something of their own to the performance.
The relevance of this art form is also connected with the fact that not only choreographers and directors, but also composers, street performers, artists, singers, poets and figures of other spheres, such as politicians, can express themselves with its help. Allowing you to directly influence the viewer, the performance opens and will continue to open new possibilities in the field of contemporary dance.
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