How do dance cards work

| American Antiquarian Society

In the Spring of 2012, AAS published The American Antiquarian Society, 1812-2012: A Bicentennial History by Philip F. Gura. To supplement this publication, the Society digitized and made available in high-resolution the images and descriptions from the text.

Architectural resources in the collection include design books, drawings, lithographs, engravings, periodicals, and photographs.

In 1995, AAS welcomed its first class of Creative and Performing Artists and Writers Fellows. Visual artists, fiction writers, non-fiction writers, poets, playwrights, performance artists, musicians and composers, as well as film and media makers came to the society seeking to create original works based on American history to present to non-academic audiences and readers. These fellows added immensely to the intellectual mix under the dome of Antiquarian Hall and contributed to lively conversations with AAS staff, academic fellows, other scholars, and the general public over the past quarter century. Many have also created powerful, imaginative, and beautiful works, which we are celebrating in a program we are calling Artists in the Archive: Twenty-Five Years of Creative and Performing Artists and Writers Fellowships.

This online resource both catalogs and contextualizes the twenty-two pieces of the Ridgway dinner service “Beauties of America” – a subset of the Society' collection of Staffordshire potter using maps, photographs, source prints and rich descriptions of the objects.

Most of the prints in this exhibit were designed simply to please the eye, but they are also useful to historians who would like to understand how 19th century Americans thought about the world in which they lived. Explored are artistic depictions of the standard of beauty, ideal beauty, women as objects, variations on the standard, true womanhood, women at home, American slavery, women in public life, women as performers, use of women as advertising strategies and more.

Drawing on the American Antiquarian Society’s unparalleled collection of prints and books, the exhibition, Beyond Midnight: Paul Revere, will transform viewers’ understanding of the iconic colonial patriot. This in-depth examination of Revere’s many skills as a craftsman will help illustrate the entrepreneurial spirit of an early American artisan who stood at the intersection of social, economic, and political life during the formation of the new nation.

This online exhibition features lithographs, chromolithographs, trade catalogues, trade cards, and product labels from the American Antiquarian Society's collection that help shed light on major changes in the way Americans in the North produced and sold their food in the second half of the nineteenth century.

The Caribbeana Project at the American Antiquarian Society features some of the major works about the Caribbean or published in the Caribbean that can be found in AAS's collections. These include letters, manuscripts, almanacs, laws, newspapers and bound volumes of all kinds. While not a comprehensive accounting of AAS's Caribbeana holdings, this exhibition examines and emphasizes the close relationship between early British North America or the United States and the Caribbean World in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

This website samples over one hundred of AAS’s most interesting Caribbean items, delving into the close relationship between these two regions, and opening up the collection for scholarship by identifying avenues for potential research.

In 2015, the William C. Cook Jacksonian Era Collection arrived at AAS adding almost five hundred books, prints, manuscripts, newspapers, and more to the Society's already significant holdings from or about the Jacksonian Era. This online exhibition follows the books from that collection through the process of being integrated into the Society's other library collections in order to reveal the everyday work of collection-building being done by AAS members, staff, friends, and researchers.

This exhibition highlights the Society's outstanding collection of lithographs, watercolors, and drawings of artist David Claypoole Johnston.

Some of the earliest and rarest materials printed in British North America were not printed in English. Instead, these books, pamphlets, and broadsides were printed in the various dialects of Algonquian, the language of the Native Americans who populated the American Northeast. This exhibition explores the contributions of those who labored in translating and printing works in the Algonquian family of native languages.

In the early days of the American Antiquarian Society, founder Isaiah Thomas asked members to send materials for preservation in the Society's library at Worcester, Massachusetts. Over the course of two hundred years, generations of the Society's members, friends, and staff have ably answered Thomas's call. This exhibition celebrates the generosity and farsightedness of some of the many collectors, book dealers, and librarians who have, each in his or her own way, contributed to the greatness of AAS.

An Invitation to Dance: A History of Social Dance in America showcases the unique print culture items on the subject of dance within the Society's holdings. From its fashion and origins, to its etiquette and opposition, this online exhibit features a sampling of artifacts from the 18th and 19th centuries. Click on the image to the left from Stephen Salisbury's "Bal Masque" ticket to attend.

With over 800 images and 300 mini-essays, this site offers a unique and comprehensive view of the broadsides that Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831) collected in early nineteenth-century Boston. Each broadside includes a brief explanation of its content by Kate Van Winkle Keller.

The American Antiquarian Society is a natural home for an online exhibition about James Fenimore Cooper's works. For many years the Society has supported The Writings of James Fenimore Cooper, an editorial project the bears the seal of the MLA Committee on Scholarly Editions. To support the work of the editors of the Writings, also knows as the Cooper Edition, the Society has actively collected editions of Cooper's works printed in any language up to the year 1877.

This online exhibition showcases the collection and career of Boston lithograph firm Louis Prang & Company, within the collections of the American Antiquarian Society. Featuring prints, salesman's samples and progressive proof books, this exhibition tells the story of Prang during the height of his career in chromolithography during the second half of the nineteenth century. Prang pioneered developments in the chromolithographic process, creating painting-like prints for the general public. He is also considered the "Father of the American Christmas card" having introduced it to the American public in 1874 after the wife of an agent suggested the idea to him while he was promoting his business abroad. Instrumental in the promotion of art education for public school students, Prang helped develop curriculum for schools, teaching art instructors, and creating safe, quality art supplies for students.

Making Valentines: A Tradition in America is designed to show the evolution of the Valentine's Day card. This exhibition is drawn, in part, from an original display created by AAS staff member Audrey Zook in 1985. It includes a select group of Valentine's Day cards belonging to the Society.

This online exhibition explores images of men in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. The selection of prints from the Society's collections represents male roles and activities and reflects social expectations.

At the start of America’s industrial revolution, a large number of young women found employment and a unique form of independence in American textile mills. Featuring selections both by and about the mill girls, from approximately 1834 to 1870, the exhibition highlights the culture and working conditions of the mills and the actions the women took to better their lives through self-advocacy.

The history of America has always been intimately entwined with the history of communications media—and that has always been changing. This exhibition broadly explores the interconnectedness of American news media, in all its formats, with changes in technology, business, politics, society, and community from 1730 to 1865.

This exhibitions uses images and objects from the AAS collections to illuminate the spaces where reading happened in early America.

This exhibition features the images of thirty-one Worcester residents depicted in the Society's portrait paintings, miniatures, and sculpture collections.

As one of the first publishers to focus exclusively on products for children, McLoughlin Brothers was able to shape and define the American picture book market. This exhibition documents the working practice of the firm by associating its products with many of the tools used during the production process, such as printing blocks, designer mock-ups, and watercolor illustration art.

This online exhibition effectively creates a digital archive of several Algonquian-language printed books and pamphlets, or wussukwhonk as they are called in the Nipmuc language, chosen for the value they add to current language reclamation work taking place in Nipmuc country. The manuscript collections featured here include town records, land deeds, and account books from English settlements established on Nipmuc homelands in the southern part of the area now referred to as Worcester County.

Using print and manuscript collections at the American Antiquarian Society and the New York Public Library’s Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, this exhibition explores portrayals of Turner in both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The bookends of this exhibition are the two “confessions”: one from 1831 and the other from 1967 when William Styron created the most controversial version of Turner to date.

This online exhibit, generated using images from the Prints in the Parlor cataloging and digitization project, considers the ways William Shakespeare's (1564-1616) characters were pictured inside the covers of literary annuals and gift books in the nineteenth-century.

This exhibition brings together a selection of images from the Society's collections that illustrate the most popular and most beautiful New England destinations for summertime visitors.

As this exhibition shows, the practice of exchanging valentines on February 14th was a distinctly modern tradition, first popularized in the United States in the 1840s.

Following practices previously developed in England, lovers, friends, and family members bought or made fanciful valentines decorated elaborately with paper lace, colorful printed materials, ribbons, hair, and scraps. Manufacturers of valentines, such as Esther Howland and George C. Whitney, played a crucial role in establishing Valentine’s Day as an American holiday. These same manufacturers often sold valentine writers, collections of short poems and affectionate messages meant to be copied verbatim, to aid the less poetically-inclined in wooing their beloved. Along with valentines themselves, these writers shaped the way Americans both expressed and experienced affection for one another.

Visions of Christmas exhibits an array of Christmas images from the Society's collections. Among the featured artists are F.O.C. Darley, Thomas Nast, Louis Prang, and the McLoughlin Brothers.

This exhibition explores the connections between American and French lithography in the early days of this printing technology. Themes include the circulation and reproduction of French imagery in the United States, the stylistic contributions of French lithographic artists who immigrated to America, and the reproduction of American genre paintings by French publishers for distribution in Europe and the United States.

A look at women's work, from before the American Revolution through the Industrial Revolution, using selected images from the Society's collection.

This exhibition explores the AAS collection of dime novels. Full of romance and adventure, dime novels were a variety of melodramatic fiction that was popular in the United States from about 1860 until the early 1900s. Published as cheap paperbacks (most cost only ten cents), they were generally regarded as low-quality fiction.

Dance Card Days | Millikin University

Dance Card from Millikin's SENIOR BALL May 20, 1927

From Millikin's earliest days, dances became an important part of student life. During the first three decades at J.M.U., getting “carded” at a dance carried an entirely different meaning from what would likely enter the mind of today's students. Popular on college campuses in the early 20th century, the Dance Card was a decorative and functional keepsake that every woman who attended a dance was able to use during the dance and take home as a souvenir. This exhibit features the Dance Cards from Millikin's past.

Dance Card for unknown dance. Interior of card.

What is a dance card?

A dance card or ballspende, is a card, often decorative, that is used by an attending woman to record with whom she will dance at formal dances and balls. Though originating in the 18th century, they became quite popular in the ballrooms of Vienna and elsewhere in Europe in the 19th century and remained popular at college dances in the U.S. into the 1920s, lingering on into the 1930s in some cases (including here at Millikin University).

The cards were designed to be worn on the wrist (hence the long strings often attached to them) or attached to the gown and would allow the woman to “pencil in” the names of gentlemen seeking a dance.

Though the cards themselves have long since disappeared from college dances, the term is still sometimes used metaphorically, as in “is their room on your dance card?” meaning “do you have some time for me?” Or in sports to refer to teams on the upcoming schedule as in “who is on the team's dance card this season?” Even the term “pencil me in” is still in use today. (Note the tiny pencil attached to the card pictured above and the names "penciled" in on the inside of the card)

What is in the cards?

While some hold that Tarot cards can reveal the future, the “dance card” can be even more revealing—about the past! Perhaps a bit more challenging than your typical primary source, the tiny dance card is loaded with historical information. It certainly provides a glimpse into the culture and society of its time, but can also reveal specifics of time, date, location, attendees, traditions (such as the same song appearing as the same dance # year after year for a specific fraternity's dances), popular menu choices of the time, and so on.

Delta Sigma Phi March 1926 dance

You will notice that the title page provides you with the date, time, and location of the dance and that it was for the Alpha Lambda chapter of Delta Sigma Phi fraternity (the Millikin chapter opened in 1920 and remains active on campus today).

The next page on this dance card provides the menu for the dinner portion of the formal dance and reveals some of the "typical" formal dining fare of the 1920s.

The next two pages feature the numbered lines for each of the dances. Notice that two of the scheduled songs for those dances are pre-listed. The 6th song of that evening was to be "Dear Old Girl of Delta Sigma Phi" and the 7th was to be the "Carnival Dance.

Some dance cards would list songs for each numbered selection, others would list the names of male fraternity members rather than song numbers, so the woman would pencil in the song rather than the male partner's name.

A quick glance at other Delta Sigma Phi cards reveals that the 6th & 7th songs being the choices listed here was a tradition for the fraternity, as they are found on dance cards from throughout the 1920s.

The final page lists the chaperones, (which included then University President Mark Penney and his wife) the band that provided the music and the members of the dance committee.

Above: This Tau Kappa Epsilon dance card from a TKE dance in April of 1932 provides an example where the names of members of TKE were listed as opposed to the songs.

Oldest card in the collection

The oldest card in the Archives' collection is one from a May 1907 dance of men's social fraternity known as I.T.G.O.S.T. (Millikin University's very first, and least known about, fraternity)

Above: The symbol on the front cover of the card incorporates all the letters of I. T.G.O.S.T. It is not known at present what those letters stood for, although one possibility is In The Good Old Summer Time (a popular song from the time period of the fraternity's founding in 1903).

As the front cover indicates, the card belonged to a "Babe" but it is not known what her actual name was.

The dances and songs are listed and the names of members of I.T.G.O.S.T. with which she shared those dances are signed in as well.

The final page lists the members of the I.T.G.O.S.T. and their patron, Prof. William Clarence Stevenson.

Other Dance Cards in the Collection

Delta Sigma Phi (Apr 1927)             Delta Sigma Phi (Apr 1928)

Delta Sigma Phi (May 1929)                                                 Tau Kappa Epsilon (Apr 1932)

Tau Kappa Epsilon (Sept 1928)                                                 Unknown dance (Dec 1922)

Unknown Dance (Unknown Date)                   Delta Delta Delta (Apr 1926)


Sigma Alpha Iota (Autumn Dance, unknown date)  Millikin University Senior Ball (May 1928)

Theta Gamma (May 1925)                              Sigma Alpha Epsilon (May 1925)

Junior Prom (Apri 1929)                                        Sigma Alpha Epsilon (May 1927)

Sigma Alpha Iota (unknown date) - unique leather pouch with removable cards

Sigma Alpha Iota (unknown date)           Sigma Alpha Iota (Unknown date)

Aston Hall Prom (Feb 1924)                                                 Pi Mu Theta (May 1921)

unknown dance (unknown date)                    unknown dance (unknown date)


how to attract clients to classes at the dance school

Alla Makarova has been dancing since the age of four and has been thinking about her school since early childhood. But her dream came true only a little over a year ago, right before the period of self-isolation. We learned from the founder of M&M Dance Studio how the business works and how she copes with difficulties.

How the business started

Alla told Open Academy that she had been dancing since early childhood, but her parents were against such work. Therefore, she studied at the Faculty of Tourism and Service, but at the university she began to teach dances.

At first, Alla worked as a coach, led many groups, and then decided to open her own dance school. She found a studio and rented it in mid-2019. For half a year, a base of coaches and students was formed, but then something happened that happened.

How we coped with the pandemic Alla and the team began to shoot video tutorials, conduct live broadcasts and sell online workouts.

It was saved by the fact that no one expected a pandemic, and therefore they were engaged with pleasure.

In order not to alienate clients, Alla set affordable prices for classes, and classes were sold.

When the restrictions were lifted, I had to start all over again: re-assemble the base and build relationships with clients and coaches. And step by step, Alla managed to build a strong business model. Now she plans to scale the business and open new schools in Moscow and the Moscow region.

How to work with trainers

One of the features of the business is that most often the students follow the coach, for a specific person and train with him. Therefore, it is important to build trusting relationships with employees and look for an approach to each of them.

Alla admits that it can be difficult to work with creative people, but she comes up with a system of motivation for each employee. And if a new coach comes, then the leader becomes a curator and helps to get involved in the work process.

How to attract clients

Finding clients is the main part of Alla's job. She builds a sales funnel, attracts students to the first open lesson, where you can meet a new coach. And then converts visitors into buyers.

Targeted advertising on Instagram and work with bloggers are also used for promotion. And Yandex.Maps works well in such a business: a lot of people just find a dance school on the map and come to classes.

Alla told Open Academy that it is much easier to attract adult clients than children. Targeted advertising works much worse to attract schoolchildren, but they come with the help of word of mouth. A bright sign is also important here, so that it would be easier for parents with children to find and pay attention to the dance school.

Three Tips for New Entrepreneurs

  1. Find out what interests you and what you are passionate about. Alla's hobby has grown into a business, she easily pays attention to the company both on holidays and on weekends. If she did not like dancing, it would be much more difficult.
  2. Before starting a business, you need to prepare: study the market, competitors, prices. Understand how you can differ from other companies.
  3. Do not open a business if there is no client base. Many make repairs, logos, websites, but do not think where to get customers and whether they exist at all. So you can invest large amounts and not earn anything.

What mistakes did she make in business development

Alla's main mistake is the inability to delegate. She led the groups herself, paid for everything herself, planned repairs, even often cleaned herself. This is a big mistake. It is important not to go headlong and not sit sleepless nights over business development. You will quickly lose all strength and desire to work. When there is at least one assistant, development will go much more efficiently, and you will be able to deal with important issues, and not a petty routine.

  • Link copied

Sitemap - Dancejam

Sitemap - Dancejam


Articles by sections

  • Heading: Uncategorized
    • 123
  • Heading: Gallery
  • Category: News
  • Heading: Teachers
  • Heading: Articles
    • A few things you can do to help your child become a better dancer today!
    • How else can you help your child become a better dancer?
    • Tips from experienced dance moms and dads
    • How to be a good dance parent?
    • How many dance lessons should my 5 attend
    • Should dancers wear their hair in a bun?
    • 6 reasons why dance and ballet shoes wear out quickly and what to do about it!
    • Patellofemoral pain syndrome and osteoarthritis
    • Snapping hip syndrome and hip impact
    • Trigger Snap Toe and Anterior/Posterior Ankle Impingement
    • Stretched and torn muscles
    • What is a shin splint or tibial stress syndrome?
    • General dance and ballet injuries
    • Leotard vs. Jumpsuit: What's the difference and why do dancers need both?
    • Long-legged dancers - problems and solutions
    • How to dance with long arms or long legs
    • Adult ballroom dancing
    • What is a Dance Parent Agreement and is it legal?
    • Why are dance lessons so expensive
    • Dance Lesson Fees - Why You Should Pay!
    • Important considerations when choosing a dance school
    • What you should pay attention to in a dance or ballet studio!
    • What to expect from your child's first hip-hop lesson
    • How to help your acrobatic dancer improve his transitions and technique at home
    • How early exposure to ballet lessons helps children
    • Tips for choosing the best dance class for your child
    • How are dance competitions judged?
    • We continue to study how long it takes to become a dance teacher
    • How long does it take to become a dance teacher?
    • Summer dance intensives and master
    • Successful preparation for your child's dance concert
    • How to prepare for a dance concert
    • Parent's Guide - First Year Dance
    • Your child's first year of ballet and dance
    • Looking for a new dance studio? Top 4 Questions to Ask
    • Why dancing is good for kids - what parents need to know
    • What if your dancer is always in the last row?
    • Back row bad? Dance teacher's view of the stage
    • Which dance is best for your child (or you)?
    • 10 Dance Class Rules You Must Follow
    • Bungee Fitness - What is this workout?
    • Kangoo Jumps Workouts
    • "Mom, I want to quit dancing"
    • Dancer Introduction to Visualization
    • What is intuitive eating and why is it good for dancers?
    • What to watch out for when your child doesn't listen to the dance teacher
    • What is acrobatic dance?
    • What is HIIT training?
    • Pilates
    • Stretching
    • Zumba Fitness Workout
    • Going beyond technology
    • Dancing for discipline
    • Contemporary dance for children
    • Elements of dance: energy, dynamics, time, space
    • The Amazing Hidden Benefits of Dance Lessons for Kids
    • How to choose a dance school for a child
    • Do you want to be a great dance teacher?
    • 5 reasons to keep attending online dance classes after the pandemic
    • 10 things to know before starting ballet
    • We continue to study Popping
    • How to learn how to pop
    • How to become a better dancer
    • Why is dance still not an Olympic sport?
    • How to take care of your body and yourself in general so that you can dance better
    • You will always be a dancer, even after you "stop" dancing
    • What is Whacking (Waacking)?
    • Ideas to help you create amazing dance choreography
    • History of hip-hop
    • Eating more, not less leads to a healthy weight dancer
    • Graduate Dance Education or Post Graduate Program - Which is Right for You?
    • What is creative dance
    • What is dance production?
    • How does dance affect learning ability?
    • What can dance teach us about learning?
    • 5 ways to diversify your skills in areas related to movement
    • 10 things to know about dancers
    • Interesting facts about dancing
    • Renaissance dancers and dancers
    • Dance through historical eras
    • Dancing is useful at any age
    • Do real ballerinas eat
    • Just because you don't dance now doesn't mean you won't dance anymore
    • How can we benefit from dance teaching standards?
    • To warm up before a classical dance, these 5 aspects are needed
    • Is dancing a sport or an art?
    • Why don't we dance in the summer?
    • Age techniques at choreography lessons
    • 4 easy ways dancers can help protect the environment
    • Stunning dancers who made the history of dance and cinema
    • So many dances, so little time - time management for a dancer's schedule
    • Real dancers perform roles on the big screen
    • Dancer's Guide to Performing on Stage
    • How to Deal with Negative Feedback in the Dance World
    • 3 tips for choosing a dance college
    • Keeping Real: The Life of a Dancer
    • Do dancers need to go to dance college?
    • Injury Prevention: The Importance of Cross Training
    • 5 reasons why you should take up ballet even as an adult
    • Art and athleticism: 3 main differences between dancers and athletes
    • 10 Classical Ballets Every Dancer Should Know Part 2
    • 10 Classical Ballets Every Dancer Should Know About. Part 1
    • What you need to know when editing a dance video
    • Best Books to Achieve Your Dance Goals
    • Muscle to Avoid If You Want to Avoid Injury
    • Healthy eating
    • Profession of the future - choreographic interface designer
    • How to choose the right pointe shoes
    • Ballerina who opened up new possibilities in the world of ballroom dancing
    • 6 ways to improve your dancing
    • What really happens to your body when you dance after skipping meals
    • What to do if you start to doubt your profession as a choreographer
    • 5 Ways to Increase Endurance
    • Are your parents not happy that you want to become a professional choreographer?
    • The importance of dancing in performance
    • Jazz Dance - Documentary
    • What influences the jury's opinion?
    • How Dancing Develops Important Skills
    • Dance helps children protect themselves from COVID
    • Benefits of dancing for children
    • Female choreographers rethink .

      Learn more