How to spell dance in french
How to Say Dance in French
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Dance in French is Danse
Ma danse préférée, c'est le tango.
My favorite dance is the tango. Source
Elle l'a regardé danser.
She watched him dance. Source
Tu ne peux pas chanter et danser le Vendredi saint.
You can't sing and dance on Good Friday. Source
Tom n'a jamais vu Mary danser.
Tom has never seen Mary dance. Source
Elle dirige un studio de danse.
She runs a dance studio. Source
La vie ne consiste pas à attendre que la tempête passe, elle consiste à apprendre à danser sous la pluie.
Life isn't about waiting for the storm to pass, it's about learning to dance in the rain. Source
Elle ne voulait pas danser avec moi.
She didn't want to dance with me. Source
Vous savez que je ne danse pas.
You know I don't dance. Source
Je veux que tu danses avec moi.
I want you to dance with me. Source
More Examples ofDance in French
Il y a un bal à la Maison française vendredi prochain.
There is a dance at the French House next Friday. Source
Profitez de la soirée au bal.
Please enjoy yourself at the dance. Source
Je me demandais si vous aimeriez aller au bal avec moi.
I was wondering if you would like to go to the dance with me? Source
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French for dance is the regular ER verb danser, covered here in all the tenses used in modern French.
To powerfully embed like the French for dance - danser the employment of memory joggers like cartoon pictures showing a silly though memorable scene is extremely effectual.
So, if you want to know how to say dance in French, how to express the verb in all the main tenses, here it is.
The 6 Simple Tenses of the conjugated verbdanser - French for dance
The Verb Conjugating Tables below for danser, encourage you to practise your French verb drills both by PRONOUN (vertically), and by TENSE (horizontally). Keep doing these many times.
Present Indicative Tense conjugations ofdanser the French for dance
présent de l’indicatif
Imperfect Indicative Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
imparfait de l’indicatif
Simple Past or Past Definite Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
Future Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
Conditional Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
Present Subjunctive Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
présent de subjonctif
que je danse
The Four Compound Tenses of the French for verbdanser - the verb ‘to dance’ in French
Past Participle ofdanser is:
Compound Past, Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense conjugations ofdanser - French for dance
Here’s the French for dance conjugated with all the pronouns in the present perfect tense.
Past Perfect Indicative or Pluperfect Tense conjugations ofdanser - dance in French
plus-que-parfait de l’indicatif
Here’s the French for -dance conjugated with all the pronouns in the past perfect tense.
Future Perfect or Future Anterior Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
Conditional Perfect Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
Imperative Tense conjugations ofdanser, the French for dance
Present Participle ofdanser
dansant - dancing
Menu of Conjugated French verbs like danser
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Choreographic terminology when working with children in classical dance lessons
Sections: Sports at school and children's health, Extra-curricular activities, General pedagogical technologies, Lesson presentation competition
To speak and write correctly, you need to know the rules of the language. The same is true in ballet. Only there instead of words - movements, and instead of spelling and syntax - the rules of classical dance. This name appeared in Russia at the end of the 19th century. Prior to this, ballet dance was called "serious", "noble", "academic". nine0007 The system of classical dance was formed over several centuries, the most expressive were taken from the many movements of folk dances and everyday dances. Gradually developed the positions of the legs and arms, the position of the body and head, and all dance movements received names.
It should be said that the ballet language is universal: a dancer from Germany will understand his colleague from Brazil, and a Japanese ballerina will understand an American one. Just as Italian terminology is used in music, and Latin in medicine, so in ballet all terms are French. nine0007 Classical dance is the basis of choreography. Classics allows you to learn all the subtleties of ballet art, to feel the harmony of movements and music.
All movements in classical dance are based on eversion - one of the most important qualities in the classics, which is simply necessary for any stage dance.
Choreographic terminology is a system of special names designed to denote exercises or concepts that are difficult to briefly explain or describe. Exercise at the support or in the middle: is a set of training exercises in ballet that contribute to the development of muscles, ligaments, and the development of coordination of movements in the dancer. The exercise is performed at the “machine” (attached to the wall with brackets) and in the middle of the training hall and consists of the same elements. nine0007 The terminology is divided into groups:
- Exercise at the barre and in the middle of the hall.
- Positions, directions, postures, additional movements.
Exercise at the barre and in the middle of the room.
PREPARATION [preparation] - a preparatory movement performed before the start of the exercise.
DEMI PLIE [demi plie] - incomplete, small "squat", half squat, in which the heels do not come off the floor. nine0007 GRAND PLIE [grand plie] - deep, full "squat".
BATTEMENT TENDU [batman tandu] - abduction and adduction of the outstretched leg in the right direction, without lifting the toe off the floor.
BATTEMENT TENDU JETÉ [batman tandu jet] - “throw”, swing of the outstretched leg to the position of 25 °, 45 ° in the desired direction.
ROND DE JAMB PAR TERRE [rond de jamb par ter] - toe circle on the floor circular movement of the toe on the floor.
BATTEMENT SOUTENU [batman hundred] - withstand, support; movement with pulling up the legs in the fifth position, continuous, continuous movement. nine0007 BATTEMENT FONDU [batman fondue] - “soft”, “melting”, smooth movement, consisting of simultaneous bending of the knees, at the end of which the “working” leg comes to the position sur le cou-de-pied in front or behind the supporting leg, and then follows simultaneously stretching the knees and the "working" leg opens forward, sideways or backwards.
BATTEMENT FRAPPE [batman frappe] - “hit”, a movement consisting of a quick, vigorous flexion and extension of the leg, the foot is brought to the sur le cou-de-pied position at the moment of flexion and opens with the toe to the floor or to a height of 45 ° at the moment of extension forward, sideways or backward. nine0007 BATTEMENT DOUBLE FRAPPE [batman double frappe] - a movement with a double blow.
PETIT BATTEMENT [petit batman] - “little blow” - alternately small, short foot strikes in the cou de pied position in front and behind the supporting leg.
BATTERIE [batri] - drum beat; the foot in the sur le cou-de-pied position makes a series of small shock movements.
BATTU [botyu] - “beat” continuously, small, short blows to the ankle joint just in front or behind the supporting leg. nine0007 ROVD DE JAMBE EN L'AIR [ron de jamb anler] - a circular movement of the lower leg (ankle) with a fixed hip, set aside to a height of 45 ° or 90 °.
ADAJIO [adagio] - slowly, smoothly includes grand plie, devlope, relay lan, all types of balances, pirouettes, turns. A fused bundle for 32, 64 accounts.
BATTEMENT RELEVE LENT [releve lan] - “raise” slowly, smoothly slowly at the expense of 1-4 1-8 raising the outstretched leg forward, sideways or back by 90° and above.
BATTEMENT DEVELOPPE [batman devloppe] - taking out, opening the legs forward, backward or to the side by sliding the "working" leg along the supporting leg in the desired direction.
GRAND BATTEMENT [grand batman] - “big throw, swing” 90 ° and above the outstretched leg in the right direction.
BALANCOIRE [balancer] - "swing", used in grand battement jete.
Positions, directions, postures, additional movements.
A LA SECONDE [a la sgon] - a position in which the performer is located en face, and the "working" leg is open to the side by 90° .
ALLONGEE [alonge] - from Ch. lengthen, prolong, extend; movement from adagio, meaning the extended position of the leg and the hidden hand, the final movement of the arm, leg, torso, the position of the elongated arm.
APLOMB [aplomb] - sustainability.
ARABESQUE [arabesque] - a classical dance pose in which the extended leg is retracted back 45 °, 60 ° or 90 °, the position of the torso, arms and head depends on the shape of the arabesque.
ATTITUDE [attitude] - posture, body position; raised leg half-bent. nine0007 BALANCE [balance] - "swing, sway"; swaying movement. It is performed with the advancement from side to side, less often - back and forth.
BATTEMENT [batman] - scope, beat.
BATTEMENT AVELOPPE [batman avloppe] - the opposite battement developpe movement, the "working" leg from the open position through the passe is lowered to a given position.
BATTEMENT RETIRE [batman retire] - transfer through the sliding of the "working" leg, through the passe from the V position in front to the V position behind. nine0007 COUPE [coupe] - knocking; a jerky movement, a short push, a quick substitution of one leg for another, serving as an impetus for a jump or other movement.
CROISEE [croise] - a pose in which the legs are crossed, one leg covers the other.
DEGAJE [degaje] - release, move the “transition” from the left to right stance forward to the toe, step forward through the semi-squat in IV position, straightening up, stance to the right, left back, to the toe. From the stand on the left, right to the side on the toe, step to the side through the semi-squat in II position, stand on the right, left to the side on the toe. nine0007 DEMI [demi] - medium, small.
DEMI ROND [demi rond] - incomplete circle, semicircle (toe on the floor, 45ana 90 ° and above).
DESSUS-DESSOUS [desu-desu] - upper-lower part, above-under, view of ras de bourree.
DÉVELOPPE [develope] - “opening”, “deployed”, from the stoic to the left, right with a sliding movement to a bent position (toe at the knee) and its extension in any direction (forward, side, back) or higher.
DOUBLE [double] - “double”, • battement tendu - double heel pressure • battement fondu - double semi-squat • battement frapper - double blow. nine0007 ECARTE [ekarte] - a pose of classical dance (a la seconde), in which the entire figure is turned diagonally forward or backward.
EFFACE [efase] - deployed position of the body and legs.
EN DEDANS [an dedan] - the direction of movement or turning towards oneself, inward, in a circle.
EN DEHORS [an deor] - a circular movement away from oneself, a circular movement outward in the hip or knee joint, as well as turns
EN FACE [en face] - straight; straight position of the body, head and legs. nine0007 EN TOURNANT [an turnan] - from Ch. "rotate"; rotation of the body during movement.
EPAULMENT [epolman] - the position of the dancer, turned in 3/4 in p. 8 or p. 2; differs epaulement croise (closed) and epaulement efface (erased, open).
GRAND [grand] - big.
JETE [jete] - throwing a leg in place or in a jump.
PAS COURU [pa smoke] - a run through the sixth position.
PAS D`ACTIONS [pas de action] is an effective dance. nine0007 PAS DE BASCUE [pas de basque] - Basque step; this movement is characterized by an account of 3/4 or 6/8 (triple size), performed forward and backward.
PAS DE BOURREE [pas de bure] - a chased dance step, stepping over with a little advancement.
PAS DE DEUX [pas de deux] - a dance of two performers, usually a dancer and a dancer.
PAS DE QUATRE [pas de cartes] - dance of four performers.
PAS DE TROIS [pas de trois] is a dance of three performers, usually two dancers and one dancer. nine0007 PASSE [passe] - “to pass”, “to pass”, the position of the bent leg, the toe at the knee: in front, to the side, behind.
PETIT [pet] - small.
PIQUE [peak] - a light prick with the fingertips of the "working" leg on the floor and lifting the leg to a given height.
PLIE [plie] - squat.
PLIE RELEVE [plie releve] - the position of the legs on half-toes with bent knees.
POINT [point] - the extended position of the foot.
PORDEBRAS [por de bra] - "bends of the body", tilt forward, backward, to the side, the same in stretching. Exercise for hands, body, head; inclinations of the body, head. nine0007 POUNTE [pointe] - “on the toe”, “touching the toe” from the stoic on the left, right forward, to the side or back on the toe swing in any direction with a return to the IP.
RELEVÉ [relevé] - “raise, elevate”, lifting on fingers or half fingers
RENVERSE [ranverse] - from Ch. "overturn, overturn"; sharp bending, overturning of the body mainly from the atitude croise position, accompanied by pas de bouree en tournant.
Rond [rond] - “circle, round”
SOUTENU [hundred] - from Ch. "endure, support, draw in."
SOUTENU EN TQURNANT [sutenu an turnan] - turn on two legs, starting with retracting the "working" leg into the fifth position.
SUR LE COU DE PIED [sur le cou de pied] - the position of the leg on the ankle (at the narrowest point of the leg), the position of the bent leg on the ankle joint.
TEMPS LIE [tan lie] - a small adagio, 1 - half squat on the left, 2 - right forward on the toe, 3 - shift the center of gravity to the right, left back to the toe, 4-IP, 5. the same to the side and back. nine0007 TOMBÉE [tonbe] - - fall, transfer of the weight of the body to the open leg forward, to the side or back to the demi-plie.
ALLEGRO [allegro] - quickly; "cheerful", "joyful"; part of the lesson, consisting of jumps, performed at a fast pace.
ASSEMBLE [assembly] - from Ch. connect, collect; a jump from one foot to two is performed with the legs moving in a given direction and collecting the legs while jumping together in the air.
BRISE [breeze] - to break, crush; movement from the section of jumps with skids. nine0007 CABRIOLE [cabriole] - jump on the spot with one leg knocked out by the other.
CHANGEMENT DE PIEDS [shazhman de pied] - a jump with a change of legs in the air (in the V position).
ECHAPPE [eshappe] - a jump with opening the legs to the second position and collecting from the second to the fifth.
EMBOITE [ambuate] - successive transitions from foot to foot on half-toes, fingers and with a jump. Emboite jumps - alternately throwing the legs bent at the knees forward or 45 °, while the half-bent legs change in the air. nine0007 ENTRECHAT [entrechat] - jump with a skid.
GLISSADE [glissade] - parterre sliding jump without leaving the floor moving right-left or forward-backward.
GRAND JETE [grand jet] - jump from one foot to the other moving forward, backward or sideways. The legs open up to the maximum and take the “split” position in the air.
JETE FERME [jete farm] - closed jump
JETE PASSÉ [jete passe] - a passing jump.
PAS BALLONNE [pa balone] - inflate, inflate; advancement at the time of the jump in various directions and poses, as well as legs strongly extended in the air until the moment of landing and bending one leg on sur le cou-de-pied. nine0007 PAS BALLOTTE [pa balotte] - fluctuate; a movement in which the legs at the time of the jump are extended forward and backward, passing through the central point; the body leans back and forth, as if hesitating.
PAS CHASSE [pa chasse] - ground jump, during which one leg knocks out the other. with advancement in all directions, during the execution of which one leg "catches up" with the other at the highest point of the jump.
PAS CISEAUX [pa Siso] - scissors; jump with throwing forward in turn legs extended in the air. nine0007 PAS DE CHAT [pa de sha] - cat's step; a sliding jump from foot to foot, when in the air one foot passes by the other.
PAS FAILLI [pa failli] - a connecting step, consisting of passing the free leg through the passing demi plie in I position forward or backward, then the weight of the body is transferred to the leg with some deviation from the vertical axis.
SAUTE [saute] - classical dance jump from two legs to two legs in I, II, IV and V positions.
SISSONNE [sison] - a type of jump, varied in form and often used. nine0007 SISSON OUVERTE [sisson overt] - a jump with flying forward, backward or to the side, upon landing one leg remains open in the air at a given height or in a given position.
SISSONNE FERMEE [sison farm] - closed jump.
SISSONNE SIMPLE [sison simple] - a simple jump from two legs to one.
SISSONNE TOMBEE [sison tombe] - a jump with a fall.
SOUBRESAUT [subreso] - a big jump with a delay in the air.
FOUETTE [fouette] - from Ch “quilt, flog”; kind of dance turn, fast, sharp; the open leg bends towards the supporting leg during the turn and opens again with a sharp movement.
PIROUTTE [pirouette] - "yule, turntable"; rotation of the performer on one leg en dehors or en dedans, the second leg in the position sur le cou-de-pied.
TOUR [tour] - turn.
TOUR CHAINES [tour chain] - “linked, connected”; fast turns, following one after another, performed on two legs diagonally or in a circle on high half-toes. nine0007 TOUR EN L`AIR [tour an ler] - a tour in the air.
French basses dances of the 15th century. Theory and Practice - Historical Dance Association
Author: Tyrenko Milena-Sofia
Year of publication: 2008
Author: Tyrenko Milena-Sofia
The concept of “mezura”
Types of mezur
Bassadance dance principles
The terminology of the bassadance dance and the technique of the French movement
Simple, single step
Body and head position.
Geometry of French bass dances
“I am bassdans, queen of all dances; I deserve to wear a crown; few people reach me; whoever dances me well, he certainly received this gift from heaven" - a quote from the manuscript of Margaret of Savoy, or, in other words, the "Brussels Manuscript".
Bass dance (basses danses) in translation sounds like a "low dance". This type of dance supposedly arose in the 14th century as a court dance, and was called so because these dances were performed almost without rising from the ground, without jumping. They were also called "walking" or "promenade". Bass dances were performed to slow and moderate music, often to popular songs, the main motive of which was Love. Dances often got their name from the first line of the song to which they were performed: “Flowers of Beauty”, “My Month”, “My Favorite” (Khudekov, 1914)
Bass dances were danced in Spain, Italy, France (Burgundy), Germany.
Although each country made its own adjustments and additions, the general style of bass dance - sedateness, stateliness, lack of sudden movements and jumps - always remained unchanged.
Most of the sources have survived from Bassdans in Italy, less in France. It is believed that Italian bass dances are more mobile than French ones, they have a more complex pattern and more complex steps. Also, the difference lies in the fact that, as we know, in Italy some bass dances were performed in threes or fours, while the French bass dances can only be said with certainty that, judging by the images that have come down to us, they were performed by a column of couples. nine0005
In French bass dances there is a strict regulation of the sequence of movements, which is completely absent in Italian dances of this type.
In this work, I will consider only the Burgundian (French) bassadances of the 15th century, and also present various options for reconstructing the steps and their conventions.
It should be noted right away that the reconstruction of the steps of the French bass dances was made on the materials of the "Brussels" and "Toulouse" manuscripts, which are almost identical. nine0005
Basically, five types of steps are constantly used in French bass dances:
- Single (Single)
- Double (Double)
- Branle (Branle)
- Desmarche (Desmarche
- Oner (honenr) (Reverence) - This movement does not apply to steps. Some works claim that there are only four types of steps in French bass dances, and Reverence is an additional element of the dance. nine0016
Single - often the word "single" in modern educational practice is replaced by the word "shempio". The Italian "chempio" and the French simple step are related to each other, but differ in execution technique.
Single step - (simple) oddly enough is considered one of the most difficult to perform, although its description is very simple:step forward, the second step - from the right foot similarly "
The first simple step is taken from the left foot, the second from the right foot. Together they make up a couple of simple steps that are never taken alone in French Bassdans. The foot is not attached between the steps.
There is another version of the execution of a simple step. The first step should be taken from the left foot, the second step from the right, but as if stepping over a small object with a smooth, rounded movement.
One pair of simple steps takes 1 tempo of music. Each simple step alone takes half the tempo. The term tempo is used for one measure of a dance (Daniel of Falling Rocks, 1991 - 1993).
In the schemes of French bass dances, the "simple" step is indicated by the letter - s or less often S .
Double (Double) - the term "doppio" is often used in modern educational practice. The Italian "doppio" has many similarities with the French double step, and most likely of the same origin.
The double step is the easiest of all French bass dance steps.
“The first “double” is done from the left foot. You need to get up and take three light steps, the first from the left, the second from the right, the third from the left. The second step is taken from the right foot ... (similarly) "
There are several options for reconstructing a "double" step:
- You just need to stand on your toes and take three steps forward without dropping on your heels. However, between the "double" steps, it is imperative to get down on the foot in order to rise on the toes before the next "double" step. The body, at the same time, should be kept straight, as if reaching up. Steps should be small and light.
- Another reconstruction of this step is as follows: take three steps forward, gradually rising on half toes, throughout the entire chain, as in the Italian step "doppio". That is, the first step is taken on the whole foot, the second, on the half-toes, the third - on the high half-toes. At the end of the step, you should lower yourself to the foot (Daniel of Falling Rocks, 1991 - 1993).
- In the third variant, it is proposed to take the first step on a full foot, the second on half-toes, the third again on a full foot, at the end of the third step, again slightly rise on half-toes .
Doppio occupies one tempo in music.
In the schemes of French bass dances, the "double" step is indicated in different ways.
The usual "double" step forward is indicated by the letter - d less often D . In those cases where D simply means a “double” step forward, then the number of steps in a bundle is usually indicated by a number next to it, for example:
Alenchon dance, "Toulouse" manuscript.
C B S D(3) R(3) B / S D R D R B / S D(3) S R(3) B / S D R D R B C
Bassdance is quite rare, and to indicate this non-standard step, there are special designations:
- Most often, in the adapted recording of the French bassdance, the “double” step back is simply denoted by a large D . La Francoise Nouvelle. "Brussels" manuscript. (ssdddssDssdDb) (ssdddDdDb) (ssdDb) 9r b
Branle ( Branle ) - I have not seen another name for this movement.
This is what is said about this movement:
"Branle should start with the left foot and end with the right, and it is called branle because it is performed by swinging one foot towards the other"
"Branle", judging by the description, it is enough a simple step, and it is done without moving forward. But, despite the seeming simplicity, it is not so easy to reconstruct this step.
There are several versions of this step, each of which has the full right to exist. nine0005
Take a step with your left foot to the left, then bring your right foot up and down, and finally transfer your weight to your right foot. Here, too, you need to add some tricks: in particular, you need to transfer the weight back to the right leg at the end with a slight sway, almost like in the 16th century riprez.
This version of the execution is based on the above statement, assuming that this step is to end with the right foot movement .
If the branle step is performed in this interpretation, then the step is obtained with an offset to the left. The shift to the left is the biggest negative of this version, although it is more consistent with the original source. nine0005
The second of the main versions proposes to take a step to the left with the left foot, bring the right foot to it (while the weight remains on the left foot), then take a step with the right foot and bring the left foot to it (weight on the right foot).
This version assumes that "finishing with the right" is finishing with weight on the right leg . The above version of the reconstruction is very similar to another version owned by Ingrid Brainard (Ingrid Brainard). nine0023
- This passage of the text describes two different aspects of the same movement. nine0016
- At this point in the text, the author made a mistake and the first step of the "demarche" should end like this: ... bring the left foot back to the other foot. This interpretation is a deviation from the original source, but no other, any plausible version for understanding this place has yet been invented. It is on the basis of this theory that the modern reconstruction of the first step of the “demarche” is built.
- In the first case, the dancer steps back a little while walking, as in a normal demarche, but from the left foot. nine0016
- In the second case, instead of bringing the right foot back to the left, the dancer returns the weight to the right foot forward, and brings the left foot to it.
- The first classification is based on the number of "double" steps. In each figure there can be either one, or three, or five such "double" steps. If five, the figure is called "grand" - large. If three - "moyen", medium. If only one - "petit", small.
- Each of them is subdivided into four more subspecies depending on the number of “demarches” in the mezur and on the presence of “simple” steps after a set of “double”. In a “perfect” figure, after a “double” there is a “simple” step, in an “imperfect” one, no. nine0016
- The first consists of: ss d r d r b
This is the only figure that appears unchanged in the later book of Modern. Despite the fact that this bundle does not fit into the general scheme, it occurs very often: in the "Brussels" manuscript it occurs 32 times. nine0005
- The second consists of: ss d r
A common, but not included in the classification, link is like an add-on to other figures in some dances. Often it stands in the bassdance, as a small introduction. This is not a mezura in itself, because the dances always clearly indicate the number of connections, and it is clear that this figure is not considered a full-fledged mezura. In the "Brussels" manuscript, it occurs fifteen times, and is always added to the average mezura, perfect or imperfect. nine0005
- Five types of steps
- Correspond to the "formula" of the mezura in steps.
- Successive mezuras in a dance have different lengths (large, medium, small)
- Each kind of step takes the same time: one tempo. Each tempo is divided into six beats (Rick Wallace).
- French bass dances were most often performed by a column of couples. The first couple chose the direction, the rest followed. Judging by the images, the column of dancers did not necessarily move in a straight line, from one end of the hall to the other. The performers could slowly move from one room to another, turn around when the place ran out, or walk across the hall obliquely. nine0016
- Also, there are images where it is obvious that the bass dance is performed in a circle. Clockwise or counterclockwise.
- It is known that there were bass dances with certain complex figures that were convenient to perform only by dancing clearly in a straight line. For example, a famous dance from the "Brussels" manuscript La danse de cleves .
Interestingly, there was a related step called konje. He is mentioned at Arena and Arbo. Arena uses it in place of the branle, and Arbo uses it at the end of each dance or long string. According to Baron Patri, Coplande writes that congé and branle are regional names for the same step.
Demarch ( Desmarche ) - in modern educational practice, this movement is often referred to by the term ripreza ( reprise ). There is an opinion that the Italian ripreza and the French "demarche" are movements related to each other. Since all later manuscripts, in particular Moderne and Arena, speak of ripreze where the Brussels and Toulouse manuscripts speak of "demarche", it is obvious that they are related. And their connection turns out to be very simple. Copland, in his translation of an unknown French source, writes: “And it should be noted that in some regions of France riprezes are called demarches, and branlies are called conges ...”. From this, it was concluded that we are talking about regional differences in terminology. nine0005
About “demarche” it is said:
“First, to make one demarche, you should step back with your right foot, and we call it “demarche” because we step back and rise, and then bring the right foot back to the other »
The second demarche is performed from the left foot, rising and slightly turning the body towards the lady; and then we bring the right foot to the left, also rising.
The third demarche is done from the right foot, like the first, and must be performed in the same place as the first. nine0005
The interpretation of the first paragraph in an attempt to reconstruct the demarche step is confusing. Twice it is mentioned that at the beginning and at the end of the step one should take the right leg back, and at the end both legs should be together. There is no mention anywhere that you need to move your left foot. In addition, it is said about the second "demarche" that it starts with the left foot and ends with the right. It is extremely difficult to implement this recommendation.
There are two interpretations of this passage in the text:
If we continue to follow the above version that a mistake was made in the original source, then the reconstruction of the demarche step itself does not seem difficult:
We start with a step back with the right foot (maybe before that we move it a little forward, so that we get a real step), then transfer the weight to it. At some point in the movement back, we rise. There is an assumption that this refers to a smooth arching movement, as if we are stepping over a brick, as in the second version of the “simple” step, only in the other direction. Then we pull the front leg back to the back, feet together, the weight remains on the right leg. The second step is done in the same way, only from the other leg. nine0005
There is an indication that during the second demarche you need to turn slightly towards the lady (probably this applies to gentlemen). If the gentleman does not do this, then during the step it turns out that he deviates slightly from the lady. It may follow from this that this instruction is given so that the gentleman does not turn away from his partner and continues to look at her. Apparently, in the first and third demarches, the lady should do the same.
Rick Wallis also notes that the demarche step should be done exactly backwards, so that both feet are in line. He also advises gentlemen, when performing this step on the second demarche, turn to the lady as they wish, it is possible only with the face, or with the whole body, and be sure to look at your lady. Ladies must accept this sign of respect, and respond to it of their choice (Rick Wallace). nine0005
There is another version of the demarche step, which is very different from those considered earlier.
In this version, the step should be taken to the right, back obliquely, from the right foot. The step is obtained with an offset to the right side. The second step is back and to the left, from the left foot, the third step is back and to the right, from the right foot. During such a performance of the “démarche”, the weight is transferred to the leg set back in the same way as it is done in the Italian Riprese .
In the scheme of the French bass dance, "demarche" is usually indicated by the icon - - or -.
Oner (honenr) or (Reverence) - bow. In modern educational practice, the term "rivenza" is most often used. Because of this, there is a temptation to understand this movement as a bow in Italian dances, which would be fundamentally wrong.
In the "Toulouse" and "Brussels" manuscripts, at the beginning of the dances there is always the letter R , which was understood as a designation of a bow. This is a wrong interpretation. From the description of the “demarche” step, it can be seen that in the dance patterns of French bass dances it is indicated by the sign - . Toulouse, in his manuscript, after the preface, placed a list of abbreviations. All abbreviations are indicated only in capital letters, and the capital R is in the list of abbreviations as a "demarche"! He not only does not mention Riverenza anywhere, but the letter that we considered the sign of Rivernza means "démarche" (Toulouze) in him.
From this it follows that in the dance patterns at the beginning there is the designation of the step “demarche”, and not a bow, and it is marked with a capital letter only because it is at the beginning of the entire dance pattern. Perhaps the demarche that opens the dance should be made somewhat embellished so that it performs the function of a bow. nine0005
The demarch is directly related to the other two steps: rivernza and ripreza. In two places of the manuscripts it is said that we usually call the rivernets. “Note that every bass dance begins with a demarche and ends with a bran…”
“A larger bass dance begins with a bass dance; on the first measure, called demarche, we pay respect to the lady, bowing in her direction, and this bow should be done from the left foot "
Both the Toulouse and Brussels manuscripts contain a dance in a rather strange scheme of which there is a step, called "oner". nine0005
Beaulte de castille
ss d honneur d / ss d honneur d / ss d honneur d / ss ddd rrr ss d rrr ss d /
bow. Unfortunately, there is no information in the manuscripts about exactly how this step is performed.
There are two versions of how oner should be performed:
There is also a third version, in which it is proposed to make "oner" in the same way as the Italian Rivernza.
It has already been said that in the usual notation the opening demarche is denoted by the letter R . But there are also other designations. Some authors designate the opening demarche with the sign C , which means, in principle, the same thing - Courtesy (Reverence) [Respect]. nine0005
The concept of "mezura" back to the table of contents
Mezura, in the context of the Brussels and Toulouse manuscripts, is a bundle, a sequence of steps.
Now it is necessary to tell in more detail about the types of mezuras and the classification of bass dances.
It is said about bass dances:
“It should be noted that there are two types of bass dances. Namely, a larger bass dance (major) and a smaller bass dance (minor). A larger bassdance starts with a bassdance; on the first measure, called demarche, we pay respect to the lady, bowing in her direction, and this bow should be done from the left foot. nine0005
The smaller bass dance begins with a pas de brebant, and on the first measure we do not salute the lady. But the fact is that in both manuscripts there are only two minor bass dances, these are Roti boully ioyeulx and Lesperance de bourbon . All other dances belong to the major type of bass dances. Since there are very few "minor" bass dances, and they are rather an exception, the above classification is rarely considered, and in ordinary educational practice this classification is not used. nine0005
There is another difficulty with "minor" bass dances. It is still not known for certain what the pas de breban (pas de breban) step is and how it was performed. In the first draft of the translation of one of the copies of Domenico Piacenza's book "De arte saltandi & choreas ducendi" that has come down to us, there is an indication that it may simply be a series of saltarelli or something similar. There is an opinion that "Breban" is the Netherlands. In modern educational practice, it is customary to perform the pas de breban step like the Italian saltarello. nine0005
Types of mesurs to the table of contents
Each combination has its own name.
Large most perfect ss ddddd ss rrr b Large Perfect ss ddddd ss r b Large imperfect ss ddddd rrr b Large very imperfect ss ddddd rb Medium most perfect ss ddd ss rrr b Medium perfect ss ddd ss r b Medium imperfect ss ddd rrr b Medium very imperfect ss ddd b Small most perfect ss d ss rrr b Small perfect ss d ss rb Small imperfect ss drrr b Small very imperfect ssd rb
The diagram above is based on the text of the "Toulouse" manuscript, since not all indications in this regard are clear in the Brussels manuscript. The texts of both manuscripts have discrepancies as to which mezura is called.
In addition to the main mesurs, there are two more bundles that do not fit into the general scheme:
R B/ SS D R SS DDD SS RRR B/ SS DDD SS RRR B/
It is quite obvious that each Mesura begins and ends with a step “ branle". In the dance patterns of French bass dances, the end of one and the beginning of the other is indicated by the sign / or is highlighted in brackets.
Bassdance dance principles back to contents
Most French bassdance dances correspond to the following:
Manner of movement to the table of contents
The "Brussels" manuscript has a remark on this subject: "When everyone dances ... they walk calmly, without throwing, as gracefully as possible"
Rick Wallis in his work "Another look at the dances of Burgundy of the 15th century" advises to keep the chest high, the body straight during the performance of bassdances and never to lower to the full foot during the execution of "simple" and "double" steps.
Terminology and technique for the five movements of French Bassdance back to index
A simple, single step back to index
This step is often referred to as "chempiot". I strongly suggest moving away from the temptation to use Italian terminology in French bass dances, which often simply leads to confusion and confusion among students. nine0005
Push off with the right foot and immediately stand on high half-toes, simultaneously with the push, move the left foot forward and transfer the weight to it, and gradually lower, as if pressing down an invisible spring with the heel. The right leg, without putting it forward, but not on the floor (it is permissible to touch the floor with the tip of the toe).
Push off with the left foot and transfer the weight to the right foot, standing on high toes. The left leg, just like the right one before, is not attached, but is brought forward. nine0005
Double step to the table of contents
This step is often referred to as "doppio". Just as in the first case, I propose not to use this term in relation to French bass dances in order to avoid confusion.
Push off with the right foot and immediately stand on high half-toes, simultaneously with the push, move the left foot forward and transfer the weight to it. Without sinking onto the foot of the left foot, it is necessary to bring the right foot forward and transfer the weight to it, then the left again (all this time we go forward on high half-toes with the weight carried out on the extended foot). At the end of the third step, we lower ourselves onto the foot of the left foot, as if pressing down on a tight spring with the heel (the lowering should not be sharp) and bring the right foot forward without transferring weight to it. With the tips of the fingers of the right, extended forward leg, touch the floor. nine0005
The second "double" step is performed in exactly the same way, but begins with the right leg extended forward. The third "double" step is performed again from the left foot.
The first step of the "double" is longer than the next two steps. A double step is done for six counts. On 1 - push off and stand on the left foot, on 2 - pause, on 3 - step with the right foot, on 4 - left, on 5 - lower on the foot of the left foot, on 6 - move the right foot forward.
Branl to the table of contents
Above, I gave several options for the reconstruction of this step. I myself propose for practical use the second of the described options. There is some nuance in this step that I would like to focus on, namely, on the left leg.
The step itself is made through high half-toes, the dancers seem to describe an arc above the floor. As already mentioned, the step ends with the transfer of weight back to the right foot and bringing the left foot to the right. However, the left foot should not be attached to the right, but immediately brought forward, but without transferring weight to it. That is, before starting the next step, your body weight should be only on the right leg. nine0005
During the branle step, the body is twisted. Taking a step to the left, the right shoulder is taken out, a step to the right - the left. We kind of turn around in the direction in which we take a step. It is not necessary to do a strong twist at all. You can only slightly turn your head in the right direction, with a slight nod.
The branle step performed simply, without twists or even a nod of the head, looks like an unfinished movement.
Demarch to the table of contents
This step is often referred to as "represe". I propose, just as in the two previous cases, to abandon the Italian terminology so that there is no confusion. A demarche is not a ripreza. nine0005
In reviewing the various versions of this step, I took it on faith that there was an error in the Brussels manuscript. Of the versions based on this theory, I settled on the first version of the reconstruction of this step.
However, this step is actually quite difficult to perform correctly and beautifully, the long train of the lady's dress interferes. In this step, there are more hidden and unexpected difficulties than it seems at first glance.
Demarch is done strictly backwards. At the same time, the gentleman and the lady hold hands. The gentleman makes a "demarche" always strictly adjusting to the lady! The lady cannot take big steps back, as there is a high risk of stepping on the train and falling. nine0005
The first demarche step always starts with the right foot. Immediately, I note that initially the right leg will be pushed forward, and all the weight will be on the left leg.
Next, the right leg is moved clearly back, so that both feet are on the same straight line. The toes of the right foot do not come off the floor during this movement, otherwise the toe of the shoe may bend. Ladies, while stepping back, move the train with their foot.
Stepping back onto the right leg, we bend it at the knee (as if we were squatting), transferring weight to it. Then we pull the left leg to the right leg, also without lifting the toes from the floor. At the same time, the movement must slowly rise on the right leg and finish the movement, standing on high toes, distributing the weight on both legs. nine0005
The second step of the demarche is done from the left foot, the third step from the right.
Onener back to contents
This movement is the most controversial moment in the reconstruction of French dances. In practice, I use the second reconstruction option described above, but with some reservations.
Having tried all the options in practice, I settled on the fact that the lady responds with a slight bow of the body, while the gentleman makes a big wide demarche, turning around to face the lady. At the end of such a demarche, the gentleman returns to the lady through his right leg and turns around to face in the direction of travel. It is more beautiful if the dancing couple does not separate their hands during the honorific. nine0005
Position of the hands back to the table of contents
Hands are an important element in Burgundy bass dances. The dancing couples held hands from the beginning to the end of the dance.
The gentleman's hand should lie on top of the lady's hand, or on her wrist, leaving the fingers free.
The arms were bent at the elbows and held very high, at waist level, or even slightly higher. Often, the hands of the dancers touched each other up to the elbows.
Ladies most often put their free hand on their stomach, holding a long dress in front (Fialko 2007). nine0005
Cavaliers either kept their free hand down or put it on their belt, although the latter is more common in miniatures depicting Italians.
Body and head position. back to contents
There are only a few mentions of how to hold the body and head while dancing in the "Brussels" and "Toulouse" manuscripts. The images of that time also do not give us a clear picture. However, it is known that in many ways the fashion for clothes makes the dance.
It was the fashion of the Burgundian court that largely determined the nature of the French bass dance movement.
Ladies could not make quick and abrupt movements, it was also extremely difficult for them to walk backwards. A heavy train delayed and interfered with movement. In order not to step on the hem, the lady often tucked the upper dress in front by the belt, or held it with her hand. To maintain the center of gravity, the ladies leaned back slightly. Because of this setting of the body, they seemed to be pregnant. At that time, female pregnancy was put on display, as such a "pregnant" silhouette was in vogue. nine0005
The lady's head was slightly lowered. A large, often not at all light, high headdress pulled the head back. This made my neck very tired.
With her torso thrown back and her head down, the lady stood bent over like a letter - S . This is confirmed by numerous images that have survived to this day. Although, on the same miniatures, you can often see ladies standing straight, like men.
However, I am inclined to the first version, based on my experience of moving in a dress of that time. nine0005
Men, unlike ladies, stand either straight or their body is inclined towards the lady.
Men, like ladies, danced in headdresses, but they kept their heads straight, not bowing to their chests.
The geometry of French bass dances. back to contents
In what direction were the dances performed? Did they dance one couple or several? Maybe each couple danced in an arbitrary direction for themselves?
We will not be able to answer any of these questions if we operate only on descriptions of dances. nine0005
To answer the questions posed, one must turn to the miniatures of that time.
In this article, I will not do an in-depth analysis of images, but will only voice the well-known result:
Etiquette in the dance To the table of contents
Very few sources have come down to us from which we can draw accurate information about the rules of behavior for a lady and a gentleman during the performance of dances. However, a small text by Guglielmo has been preserved on this subject, replete with very interesting details. Here are some quotes:
“A young and virtuous lady, if she wants to comprehend and assimilate this science and art, should behave much more modestly and humbly than a man. ” and gentle. Let her movements be soft and humble, and her posture proud and full of dignity; the step should be light, the gestures beautiful and clear. The look should not be haughty or wandering (should not look in all directions, as many do), but it is best if the lady looks down for the most part modestly; but without lowering his head to his chest, like many. (On the practice, p.109)”
Here, it is worth mentioning that the author referred in the text to Italian society, where headdresses, and all women’s clothing in general, were strikingly different from the Burgundian dress of that time. The headdress of Italian women was much simpler and smaller in size than the elaborate headdresses of French women. He didn't pull his head back.
However, the author claims that in Italy too, ladies often kept their heads down! What can we say about French women, where such a position of the head was dictated by ordinary convenience. nine0005
Also, Robert de Blois, back in the 13th century, in his poem “Good manners for ladies”, noted that a lady should never look a man in the face, except perhaps to the one to whom her love rightfully belongs, that is, her husband ( Viollet le Duc 2003:36).
Also, based on the images of dances of that time that have come down to us, it can be assumed that the ladies never picked up the train during the performance of bass dances. It is interesting to note that when performing other dances of the same period, such as branles, the ladies not only threw the train over their hands, but also tucked it in the belt behind them! True, such images are not often found. nine0005
Funny note to the table of contents
At the end of the article, I would like to mention the Italian term "French dance", which is found in the texts of Giovanni Ambrosio. The author in his work cites several dances as "French": bass dance Borges , ballo Amoroso, and ballo Petit Riense. What Giovanni Ambrosio meant when he said that this or that dance is “French” is still a moot point.
Some researchers tend to believe that this is how the author described dances borrowed from France. Others suggest that this is just some kind of term used at the time, the meaning of which we no longer understand. Both versions are equally possible (On the practice… p.235). nine0005
For illustration, here is the choreographic scheme of the "French" Borges bass dance, described by Giovanni Ambrosio.
Borges (Borges) - Citizen.
Performed by a couple.
Forward, from the left foot.
2 sh. 5d. 2 sh.
Back, from the right leg
2 Continents (l.r.)
We go forward, from the left foot.
2 sh. 1d.
Back from the right foot.
2 Continents (l.pr.)
End of the dance.
The linear structure of this dance is unusual for the choreography of the Italian bass dance, while for the Burgundian dance, such a structure is typical. nine0005
If we replace the chempio back with a demarche, and the continent with a branle, then it turns out:
Footnotes to the table of contents
 This version of the step is taken from the master classes of Eva Kroshlova. St. Petersburg FTS 2008
 This step option is taken from the master classes of Eva Kroshlova.