How to register a dance institute in india

Legal compliances required for a dance class studio

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This article is written by Jolly Tiwari who is pursuing a Diploma in Advanced Contract Drafting, Negotiation and Dispute Resolution from LawSikho.

Table of Contents

Being a dance instructor you not only need experience and knowledge but also a good place to start with your dancing classes and impart your skills. What a studio gives is space to provide public and private sessions of Dance classes.

What you need to do is to identify your niche and that will put you in the right mindset to start your own studio and adhere to Legal Compliances (Legal compliance is the process by which a company adheres to the complex rules, policies and processes that regulate business practice in a particular jurisdiction.)

If you’re starting a dance studio, you must obtain the paperwork necessary to operate as a commercial enterprise legally. If you are wondering what licenses are needed to start a dance studio, then this article will be your in-depth guide as it will deal with all the necessary requirements needed to start the studio.  

Before starting paperwork needs to be done, to operate as a commercialised entity. Let’s delve into various licenses needed to start your own studio.

So, what licenses are needed to start a dance studio? 

  • A Certificate of Incorporation and a Certificate of Occupancy–

Certificate of Incorporation

It means that if you register your dance studio as corporation, you will receive a certificate of Corporation.

Certificate of Occupancy

It means that you pass all legal inspections to see that you are ready to operate legally or not, generally landowner is responsible for this. 

  • Music licenses by organizations in this industry such as public performances licenses( For playing background music or in events including special events like concerts, dance floor, stage, and even for brand promotion activities, shows, etc.).
  • Incorporation of Dance business as a legal entity, registrations, legal compliance with local zoning regulations and annual payment of taxes will also be needed.
  • Bank Accounts for the company.

The cost of starting a dance studio will mainly depend on the facility available to the business owner. If a business owner is able to rent or lease an existing studio, this can help to keep costs down so that startup costs may be only $10,000 or $20,000. If an owner needs to renovate a space into a studio, then major expenses like mirrors and flooring can drive that price up to $40,000 or $50,000. If you are aiming to launch a Music or Dance academy in India, startup costs can go upto INR 5 Lakhs, including the price of the music instruments, renting out an office space, hiring other talented dancers/musicians, marketing costs, and so on.

Common startup costs for a dance studio include:

  • Studio renovation expenses, like flooring and mirrors.
  • Furniture for waiting areas and changing rooms.
  • Equipment bars and mats.
  • Studio management/calendar software.
  • Signage.
  • Working capital to cover the first 3 to 6 months of salary, utilities, internet, rent, etc.
  • Consistent renovations of studio-like flooring, mirrors etc.
  • Furniture expenses.
  • Expenses of equipment such as Mats, bars etc.
  • Signage.
  • Capital for working for initial months.

Okay so why do we register? Registration makes it easy for applying  taxes, licenses and music organizations dealings and in case of direct liability in event of lawsuit you can be exempted after registering.

For Example- In case of a suit filed by the student due to some injury or other, the suit will be against the company and not you.

Of everything, LLC is the most feasible option that is Limited Liability Partnership in starting for small businesses

But registering as a Sole proprietor can also be a good option if you yourself is a dance teacher in your studio.

For foreign dance studio owners/investors, it’s always better to stick to one of the top 3 states. In case you want to operate as a single branch then you need to register in your home state only.

Minor things have to be taken into consideration like a business name and it does not need to be the same as Dance Studio. Make sure the name you choose is available as there are more registered companies than citizens.

The last step is to appoint an agent after incorporation on your behalf (An Agent represents you)  This agent needs to be from the state in which the dance studio is registered and he needs to be a real person.

Pro Tip: The Registered Agent could be you if you register your dance studio in your home state. 

However, if you choose to register your studio in a more business-friendly state, you can hire services that have agents who work on your behalf. These services tend to be cheap. 

You will receive a Certificate of Incorporation if you register your dance studio and if you register as a LLC then you will get a Certificate of Authentication.

Once you get a certificate you get the proof of your dance studio registration, which you can use to file your taxes and it will also help in local State regulation dealings while applying for permits. 

Once you obtain your certificates you can easily open business accounts as the bank will ask for your certificates.

The Business account is type of Asset protection as you will separate your personal assets.

The most important certificate is the Certificate of Occupancy, which you need to have if you operate as a Dance Studio legally. Once you have rented the place, furnished and passed every inspection, then you can obtain this certificate.

Once you have passed all the zoning laws, inspections of safety, codes of local buildings, you get the permit to operate as a studio and you can start your own business legally.

But this certificate of Occupancy only works for one branch, if you want to open another branch you need to have another certificate, and also in case of some major renovations, a different Certificate of Occupancy that will have to go through inspections again.

Example: If you’re applying to open a dance studio in New York City, the city will send inspectors from all branches such as the fire department, police, health, public/labor departments. They will issue you a CO once you’ve passed all inspections. 

At Least an hour takes for inspection can extend to 5 hours maximum, and 4-5 weeks time is taken for all correlated inspections. Additional information such as source of income and dance instructors whereabouts are also asked.

Well, a landlord owes you the certificate of Occupancy, so in case you are leasing a space for your studio, then you should ask or consult your landlord on the same to make sure that you get your CO through your landlord.

If later on you plan for major renovations as you progress then you’ll have to consult for new inspections and permissions. They will then update your CO with the new design or layout of Studio.

However, in case you have not leased but are the owner of the Studio then you will need to consult yourself to the local city administration and they’ll send inspectors .

Once all the formalities are done for Certificate for Occupancy, everytime you make changes you will need to consult and follow-up for licensing and permission. 

Pro Tip: Small changes don’t require CO just as painting, carpenter work etc.

Dance Studios are hubs for dance and music, so using such proprietary music you have to pay royalties to the one who owns the music that is the Music Rights Organisation.

It’s not only for Dance Studios but all other businesses that play Music as well.

Let’s take an example of Malls and Bars, they play music for making profits so they also need to pay to the Music Rights Organization though you may be playing to uplift the atmosphere.

Public Performance License is also needed for a Dance Studio.

The cost may vary as it depends on Student size and various other factors.

So Here we now know how a Dance Studio can be started from scratch that too legally, hence by following the above guidelines one can think of opening the Dance Studio.

A great way to start one’s own business but in a legal way so that later there are no harsh consequences should the person be well aware of terms and conditions. As we saw that the person who owns the place has to go through different legal terms and the person who is at lease has to go through different set of conditions. Expenditures are also to be thought of while creating a studio so that in future no money problem arises.


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A Step by Step Guide


For some people, dance is a hobby, while it is a career for others. Everybody can dance in their unique style. Dance has grown into a magnificent method of expression today. Dance provides a wide range of possibilities. It enables kids to acquire essential life skills, such as creativity, expressive ability, etc. Dance provides physical advantages such as increased body balance and coordination. Also, dance encourages people to have a healthy and active lifestyle. Let’s check out how to start a dance studio business in India below.

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How to start Dance studio business in India
Registration of the Dance studio as an organization

The applicant must register their dancing studio as a company or organization. There are two ways to acquire a license for setting up a dance studio in India.

Through online method
  • In the online method, the person applying for dance school should set a name for his organization.
  • After setting up the name he/she has to make sure that the name is available for his business registration.
  • If the name is already registered he/she must try a different name pattern.
  • After the name is set successfully the person can fill out the form for applying to his business.
  • After the application is submitted successfully the person should register with the registrar of companies 
Through the Chartered Accountant method
  • When registering a business, check if the intended name has ever been used and then submit for registration.
  • A digital signature certificate by the prospective firm’s director must be obtained.
  • After that, get a Director Identification Number (DIN).
  • Filling out an e-Form or registering as a new user will be done after getting the DIN.
  • Finally, the company’s incorporation is completed.
  • The applicant will receive a letter of acceptance as well as an MOA certificate.

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Setting up a business bank account that you need to run your business

When the individual and corporate accounts are combined, you might risk losing your assets if your company is at risk. So, the following steps are to be followed while setting up a new business.

  • A bank account for the business
  • A professional should be recruited to keep track of all of the revenue and spending
  • Paying taxes, either by yourself or hiring a tax professional
  • A business email id as well as a phone number
  • To manage the firm, you’ll need the necessary equipment and software
  • Online payments, enabling convenient and quick fee payments to students
Costs involved in setting up a dance school
  • When purchasing or leasing a smaller, less expensive company space in a less populous section of town, the expenditures are lower.
  • Rather than building or buying a new studio, lease and renovate an existing business space.
  • By purchasing a brand new studio.

We can get started to set up a dance studio for significantly less cost from the first two ways. However, setting up a brand new dance studio is very expensive and not affordable for everyone. A building needs a significant financial commitment, and the structure’s tax and mortgages should be factored into the total construction expenses.

A studio should also have a reserve budget set aside if the facility requires emergency repairs. The cost of a facility and insurance are the two most significant expenditures involved with a dance studio. A dance school should have comprehensive liability coverage that protects all students, trainers, visitors, and events held there in terms of the insurance.

License required for setting up a dance studio
  • The Certificate of Occupancy and an Incorporation Certificate.
  • You’ll also need to form a legal corporation for your dance studio, enroll with IRS to follow local zoning restrictions, & pay taxes every year.
  • Under the Copyright Act, you must get a music permit from ‘Phonographic Performance Limited,’ otherwise, your Dance Studio will not be able to operate.
Documents required for setting up the dance studio as an organization
  • The Business PAN Card as confirmation of identity
  • One proof of address
  • Documentation confirming payment of the fee
  • Articles of Association and Memorandum
  • Form 18
  • Form 32 and Form 29
  • Letter from the Registrar of Companies releasing names
  • NOC from directors
  • Aadhaar card

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Deciding a perfect location for setting up the dance studio
  • The number of square feet
  • The room’s configuration
  • Parking/Safety
  • Businesses in the area chosen by us
  • Budget
  • Distance from the competitors
  • Nearby Landmark
Determine your market segment and desired clients

Segmenting your target group into accessible groups is known as market segmentation. Market segmentation divides a market into subgroups based on demographics, requirements, priorities, mutual trust, and other personality or behavioral characteristics that help identify the strategies. With dancing studios, you may enter several categories, each of which will attract a specific audience. But, first, you must determine what yours would be. Some of the market segments of a dance studio are:

  • Only a few dancing styles are offered
  • Dance genres that are commonly seen
  • Dance classes for kids
  • Styles of ethnic dance
  • Dance classes for couples
  • Dance classes for singles
Business plan for the successful operation of the Dance studio
Goals and strategies

The strategic business plan objectives provide these specifics of an organization’s expectations for attaining its defined goals. While targets are broad, agendas must be specific enough that two individual spectators can determine if the organization has reached its aim after the plan is implemented.


 What kinds of dances, music, or instruments your organization will provide to its clients. Do you have any plans to add any additional services in the future? What is the estimated cost of the investment? What kind of investment have you already made? What portion of it will you get from an investor? These points are to be considered for planning Investments and Services.

Analysis of the industry trends

 What is the market’s present state? Are there any regional studies that can determine the number of people interested in participating in this kind of dance class in the city? These are to be examined for understanding the market trends.

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Future forecasts for market segmentation technology

What are the market’s prospects for the future? Is there any study or analysis that can help us figure this out? These are the scenarios to be considered while thinking about the future scope.

Procedures for operation

This part of the Business Strategy will focus on the academy’s day-to-day operations, such as recruiting practices, reporting times, and training procedures.   

Planning vision and mission statements of the organization

The reason for an organization’s existence and how it serves its consumers This might include a description of the business, what it does, and its goals. The vision of the organization is nothing but describing the reason for the existence of the organization.

Choose the services you are going to provide to the clients

This will be influenced mainly by your customer segment, so keep that in mind when you decide.

  • What about classes for couples? Classes for singles? Both?
  • What dance styles do you intend to teach?
  • Will you be providing group dancing lessons? Do you want to take private dancing lessons? Both?
  • Will you be competing with a dance team?
Creating the price structure for the services provided

For an exemplary operation of the organization, you’ll need to generate money from your dancing courses, so measure the benefits against the costs. We need to understand what our target clients are willing to spend. You don’t charge the prices they can’t afford. Make a reasonable estimate of your monthly costs and make sure you can go to the minimum match even. Losing money in your firm will eventually force you to close it down.

Advertising and marketing

Advertising and marketing are the backbones of a business since they expose your services to a vast number of people, resulting in a more extensive client base and, as a result, more money. To begin, your marketing plan may be as easy as ensuring that every client is completely delighted with your offerings. Not only will satisfied consumers return to your lessons, but they will also spread the word about your abilities through word-of-mouth marketing.

This is frequently regarded as the most effective method of promoting your company. Begin marketing your studio even before it opens. This will assist in piquing people’s interests and raising awareness about it before you ever open your doors. To target the internet public, look into the price of creating a website and creating social media accounts. Include such expenses in your budget. Find a local dance studio team or attend webinars that teach you how to advertise and enroll students in your class.

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Building a website for the Dance studio

You need a company website as much as you need an advertising and promotion plan that includes small details like newspaper advertisements. Find a domain name and a hosting service. You may purchase both of these items together or individually. Your website address should match your company’s name and, if at all feasible, finish Hire an expert to create a foundation and style for your website, or look for these items online.

There are a variety of pre-made themes available at various pricing points. If you go with pre-made themes, make sure to get a framework. You need a company website as much as you need an advertising and promotion plan that includes small details like newspaper advertisements. Find a domain name and a hosting service. You may purchase both of these items together or individually.

Your website address should match the company’s name. Hire an expert to create a foundation and style for your website, or look for these items online. There are a variety of pre-made themes available at various pricing points. If you go with pre-made themes, make sure to get a framework.

Details about Taxation and GST

No business setup is complete without understanding and establishing a strategy for dealing with the taxes involved. The following are the tax regulations that must be observed by a firm that is established in Education and Training sector:

  • A 15% Service Tax will be levied on activities in the training business. All transactions are subject to an 18 percent GST. However, there will be some leeway in the form of Input Tax Credits on the supplied goods and services, if any are available.
  • The Academy can claim an Input Tax Credit of outsourced goods and services if the following criteria are met:
  • Cross-utilization of Central GST and State GST will not be authorized, i. e., CGST input will not be accessible for SGST payment, and vice versa.
  • To pay the CGST, first input the CGST amount, then enter the IGST amount.
  • To pay the SGST, first input the SGST amount, then enter the IGST amount.
  • To pay the IGST, first, input the IGST, then the CGST, and finally the SGST.
Filing of returns

Every financial year, an Education or Training Organization must file the following returns:

  • Return for the half-year service tax
  • Return of Service Tax every year
  • Returns on all GST taxes

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Equipment required for a Dance Studio

Music players, Speakers, and amplifiers are essential components of a music studio. Make sure you select the music system with multiple inputs such as an Auxiliary, USB, Bluetooth connectivity, etc. Generally, you need at least two powerful speakers to cover an entire room with music. You can also add additional speakers for an immersive experience. Mount the speakers on the wall well above the dance floor for better results.

Apart from the mirror, the barre is also an essential component of dance studio equipment. Young dancers will lay their hands on the lower bar, while adult dancers will use the top bar. However, there are distinct movements and postures for adult dancers to utilize the upper and lower bar at different times. While many dance studios use wooden floors, some choose Marley flooring because it is what is used on the large majority of dance stages.

When you practice on Marley, you won’t be surprised when you test out the dancefloor; it’s also less slippery than other forms of wooden flooring. Like any other venue where sports are played, the studio should have a quality first-aid kit on hand. A piece of standard first-aid equipment should be well-stocked, and ice packs should be kept in the freezer. Remember that athletic tape is more probably to be used than anything else.

Keep a lighter on hand to burn ribbon on footwear to avoid fraying and tripping. A needle and thread, as well as safety pins, are valuable additions to the toolbox. You’ll need some heavy-duty fans in your studio if you live in a climate where most buildings don’t have air conditioning. A studio, especially in the summer, may become a scorching environment. Install bi-directional fans next to windows if feasible so that you may bring in fresh air while also blowing away stale air. Finally, every dancing studio should have a lost and found box and a spares box.

Every night, neglected goods can be placed in the lost and found box, where their rightful owners will hopefully claim them. Unclaimed goods can be put regularly. For example, dancers who have outgrown specific shoes, leotards, and tights can store them inside this spares box, so if someone forgets anything, there’s a possibility they’ll be able to work with a pair of shoes for that day.

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1 How to start Dance studio business in India

1. 1 Registration of the Dance studio as an organization

1.1.1 Through online method

1.1.2 Through the Chartered Accountant method

1.2 Setting up a business bank account that you need to run your business

1.3 Costs involved in setting up a dance school

1.4 License required for setting up a dance studio

1.5 Documents required for setting up the dance studio as an organization

1.6 Deciding a perfect location for setting up the dance studio

1.7 Determine your market segment and desired clients

1.8 Business plan for the successful operation of the Dance studio

1.8.1 Goals and strategies

1.8.2 Investment/Services

1.8.3 Analysis of the industry trends

1.8.4 Future forecasts for market segmentation technology

1.8.5 Procedures for operation

1.8.6 Planning vision and mission statements of the organization

1.8.7 Choose the services you are going to provide to the clients

1. 8.8 Creating the price structure for the services provided

1.9 Advertising and marketing

1.10 Building a website for the Dance studio

1.11 Details about Taxation and GST

1.11.1 Filing of returns

1.12 Equipment required for a Dance Studio

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Not just Bollywood: why you should get acquainted with Indian dance

It is generally accepted that Indian dances are limited only to Bollywood and its various variations. But few people know that the dance heritage of India includes, first of all, classical dances with more than 2000 years of history.

Svetlana Gadalina, 9 tells about the diversity of Indian dance styles, the history of its popularity in Russia and its unique features0004 founder and president of the Divya Tala Center for the Study of Oriental Arts, as well as the head of his own dance group Nritya Ashram.

The first mention of dance as an integral part of the dramatic art dates back to the turn of the 2nd century. BC - II century AD and are found in the Bharatamuni Natya Shastra manuscript. From the XII-XIII centuries. AD the dance becomes an independent art form and is performed in temples as part of the ritual of worshiping the god Shiva. The dancer, her gurus and musicians receive a high status in society and become respected people. However, during the time of the English colonialism, the dance loses its significance and is forgotten. And only from the beginning of the XX century. thanks to the selfless work of the most famous artists of India, classical dance is regaining its paramount importance and becoming a stage, secular art form. nine0005

In Russia, classical dance has become known to a wide audience since 1987 thanks to the festival of Soviet-Indian friendship, which was held in the Kremlin and Luzhniki with a large crowd of people. Its success was so overwhelming that soon the Cultural Center named after A. I. Jawaharlal Nehru at the Embassy of India, whose task was to spread Indian culture in Russia.

There are eight classical dance styles in modern India. Each of them has its own beauty and performance features. However, I like the classic Odissi style of the state of Orissa (Odisha), located on the east coast of Central India. This is a lyrical and very graceful style of dance, in which the strength of male energies and the beauty of female plasticity are intertwined. The lines of the body are rounded, the arms and legs are half-bent at the elbows, and the body bends in bizarre poses, reminiscent of sculptures of dancers on the walls of ancient Indian temples. The dancer's feet and fingers are covered with red paint, the viola, her wrists and shoulders are decorated with elegant silver bracelets, a heavy belt emphasizes her thin waist. Her hair is pulled back into a whimsical updo adorned with snow-white flowers and silver jewelry. The costume itself is sewn from a thin silk sari, which is draped on the legs in the form of an opening fan. The appearance of the dancer, the movements of her body in the dance, the position of the legs, the placement of the feet on the toe or heel, the intricate hastas (positions of the fingers), the curves of the body, the gaits are so graceful that they create the impression of mystery and incomprehensibility, which India itself is. nine0005

Many years ago, I had the opportunity to go to Delhi for a few months, where for the first time I really started learning Odissi from the Indian guru Ramani Ranjdan Jena at the Triveni Kala Sangam Institute. I remember my first impressions of India: noise, din, a mixture of smells of dust and spices, an incomprehensible language, smiling faces and a strange life on the streets. Unusual, very spicy food, rickshaws and heat in the middle of winter. But gradually all this entered my life and became a familiar background for daily dance classes. The class usually starts at 9morning and ended by lunchtime, in the midst of the heat. My teacher was very demanding and did not calm down until the movement was perfected, and I was exhausted. But then the long-awaited rest came, when you could go to the nearest cafe, eat warm chapati cakes and drink fragrant masala - tea, a drink with milk and spices.

In the early 2000s, after a fateful meeting with the prima Odissi, dancer Srimati Sujata Mohapatra, a student of the great guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, I began a very creative and eventful period of my dance life. nine0005

Annual trips to India, to the city of Bhubaneswar, where Sujata lives and teaches, her regular master classes in Moscow, our numerous concerts at home and in India, tours of various Russian cities, master classes in France, and, finally, foundation of his own school-studio of Indian dance "Nritya Ashram". And in 2019, I founded the "Center for the Study of the Arts of the East" Divya Tala ".

Two years ago, my girls performed in Spain at the Dance in Catalonia competition and took third place in the classical dance category, and soon after that they received an invitation to participate in the Fashion Sentence program on Channel One. nine0005

A unique feature of classical Indian dance, which few people know about, an exceptional feature that distinguishes it from other styles of dance, is abhinaya, or in other words, expressive dance. This is a very ancient tradition, dating back to the last millennium, which made it possible for a person to communicate directly with the gods through facial expressions and gestures. Now the tasks of abhinaya have become different, but the richest arsenal of expressive means has remained. The dancer uses 28 different one-hand gestures and 24 two-hand gestures, as well as 9basic emotions for a conversation with the viewer. With the first words of the song, a real mystery unfolds on stage. The dancer turns either into a brave hero, or into an insidious villain, or into a young girl going for water, or into a playful boy who planned to steal sweets. But the brave goddess Durga goes to battle with an evil demon or the beautiful Radha is waiting for a date with her beloved. An experienced dancer is able to keep in suspense the entire audience, which is trying to understand his emotional story. Sometimes the tension of the dance is so great that the audience can cry along with the piercing music. nine0005

The study of classical Odissi begins with a technical class - basic exercises in which the dancer's body gradually gets used to the loads and the specifics of the movements. Since the performance of classical Indian dance, like any dance in general, requires maximum physical exertion from the dancer, classes begin with a warm-up aimed both at developing certain muscle groups and at developing a general high tone of the body. Special exercises for the muscles of the neck, eyes, feet, hands, fingers, etc. are included. Mandatory exercises for the development of body flexibility and plasticity of movements. nine0005

However, for the performance of one technique, even impeccably performed, it is not enough, because the dance traditions of Indian dance are based on the experience of spirituality. Therefore, a necessary element of learning is to get acquainted with the history of the origin and development of dance, with the cultural traditions of India, as well as with Hindu myths and legends, which are the basis of the Odissi plot dances.

Very often I am asked about who can dance classical dance and at what age? There is only one answer: the uniqueness of Indian dance lies in the fact that it has no age restrictions. Dance itself in India is a way to express the joy of a person through movement. In India, they always dance: before the start of the harvest, after it ends, when it rains, when a girl is married ... And here it is important that a person wants to feel this joy through the movements of the body, through its plasticity, is in the rhythm of the dance and enjoy the aesthetic pleasure of feeling beauty own body. nine0005

The article was prepared by ANO "Center for the Study of Oriental Arts" Divya Tala "with the support of the Ministry of Culture of India and the Jawaharlal Nehru Cultural Center at the Embassy of India in Moscow (ICCR\JNCC).

History of dance in India (Mohiniattam - Mohini dance part 1)




| Folk dances

Historical dance

Mohiniattam - former temple dance of Kerala

Mohiniattam is a version of a graceful "soft" lasya dance practiced in the Indian state of Kerala. This dance, which is also known as the "dance of the enchantress", is almost always performed by female dancers. Some regions of India have their own versions of this kind of Natyashastra tradition associated with "temple dances".

Mohiniattam - former temple dance of Kerala

Mohiniattam was originally performed by devadasis or temple dancers who were dedicated to the deity from birth and were considered the "brides" of this deity. The Devadasi Institute was closely associated with the bhakti sect - people who completely devoted their lives to the concept of devotion to the gods. nine0005

Mohiniattam is characterized by the softness of his style, the gliding movements of the body and the white saris edged with gold worn by the dancers.


Lasya, a solo dance style, has a long history in Kerala. After the decline of the devadasi institution in Kerala, the reputation of the old dance forms was tarnished by the notoriety of their performers.

Mohiniattam - former temple dance of Kerala

As a result, Lasya-style "temple dances" were renamed Mohiniattam or "Mohini dance". It received a similar name in connection with the adaptation of the god Vishnu to the bhakti cult in Kerala in the 15th century. According to Indian legends, Vishnu assumed the form of the enchantress Mohini to bewitch the demons so that the gods could obtain the elixir of immortality. nine0005

Mohiniattam - former temple dance of Kerala

The Mohiniattam dance was first mentioned in literary sources in 1709.

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