How to do a high kick in dance
Teaching & Developing High Kick Technique — SHOWMAKERS OF AMERICA
Audiences truly appreciate viewing a well-crafted high kick routine with skilled kickers performing. And there is nothing better than a routine centered on intricate kick sequences, show-stopping synchronization with solid jazz technique incorporated into the visuals. When I was director/choreographer of the Texas State University Strutters, I often would end their routine by having the team execute a traveling airborne split leap (connected) and landing in a perfect split. This was their signature trademark, and at the time it was always a big crowd-pleaser. A lot of hard work goes into training and perfecting high kicks. It is important to ensure dancers are not only “powering up” their kicks and “whipping” their legs down in sync, but also safely using the correct muscles to sustain them through physically demanding rehearsals and performances.
By increasing flexibility and technique, both will give individuals the solid foundation needed to integrate with the team and to become an accomplished kicker. To be able to kick without pressing down on the teammate next to them, it is most important for the dancer to maintain a strong core by incorporating planks, sit-ups, (even Pilates) into their workout. Begin students on a training program that will enable them to develop muscular strength, endurance and develop core strength and flexibility. By doing so, individuals will have far less injuries and will develop enough strength to perform advanced skills and high kicks. Teach students proper stretch technique to include static stretching of the hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors, calves, low back and groin muscles. Static stretching helps loosen muscles, removes lactic acid, and prevents the muscle tissues from healing at a shorter length after a heavy workout. Incorporate squats, lunges, and push-ups to help build core strength. This program is necessary for the development of skills, kick combinations, and for attaining height goals. As the core strengthens, your dancers will find it easier to perform their skills. You will also notice improved posture, a stronger back, and overall sense of muscle support.
Finally, I recommend a new training method (Water Pilates) that is sure to assist in your teams’ desire to become accomplished kickers. As a dancer and coach, I have taken this technique to a higher level by incorporating the Pilates method of conditioning in the water, and included dance technique into the training regime. When coaching precision dancers and dance teams, I have found this method most effective in developing precise placement of movement and body alignment concepts. As a coach, you must decide if you are willing to commit to the time that is necessary to develop your teams’ strength, flexibility, technique, and endurance. Many of today’s students do not possess the work ethic to train on their own.
Stretching improves physical efficiency, postural alignment, increases ones’ range of motion, and promotes endurance and healthy joints. Stretching hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors and low back muscles regularly, enhances relaxation in the tissues thus reducing the strain on one’s back. Dynamic warm-up exercises (before stretching) loosen tendons, increase blood circulation, and help prevent injuries during workouts or any activity. ALWAYS warm-up muscles before stretching (never stretch cold muscles). Muscles need a certain amount of oxygen before they will accept an appropriate stretch. Cool-down stretching helps relieve muscle soreness and tightness. Be sure to teach ALL stretches correctly as to prevent injury. The core is an area of the body that if well-conditioned, will make your dancers stronger athletes. When teaching proper high kick technique, many think that working the hamstrings are the most important muscle to condition, but in reality, your leg is pushed by the hamstring, pulled by the quads and held up there by your abdominals and gluts. All of those muscles need to be conditioned in sync. It is VERY important to incorporate a good stretch routine into your program. Note: If you are not familiar with proper core training technique, see your school athletic trainer for help.
It is very important to warm up the muscles and joints through dynamic warm-ups. Stretching cold, tight muscles can lead to injury, so have your dancers first perform some gentle joint rotation exercises and an easy aerobic exercise. Warm-up stretching exercises loosen tendons, increase blood circulation, and help prevent injuries during workouts or any activity. ALWAYS warm up their muscles before they stretch! Joint rotations are done by working head to toe using small, slow circles (clockwise and counterclockwise) at every joint until they all move smoothly and easily. You can also have the dancers execute some jumping jacks to raise their core temperature and increase circulation before they stretch.
Example: I recommend easing into stretching with this safety-first routine. Personalize it with movement, music, and stretches that your students enjoy.
5 to 10 minutes of warm-up to raise core temperature (try jumping jacks or jogging around the studio/gym). Students should be sweaty but not tired.
5 to 8 minutes of general dynamic stretching (leg swings, walking lunges, etc.).
3 to 5 minutes of dance-specific stretching of the dancers’ choice, including static stretches held for up to 15 seconds.
Do Not Overstretch
If muscles start to quiver at any point during stretching, back off a little. Quivering means the muscles are being overworked. Overstretching can involve muscles, joints or both. It occurs when the muscle or joint is pushed well beyond its normal limits. Muscles that are overstretched will appear lax instead of toned and can cause instability issues within a joint, creating problems ranging from microscopic tears in the tissues to full tears of muscles, tendons or ligaments. Joints are also more likely to become hyperextended. Do not allow your students to overstretch! To develop long-term improvements in flexibility, stretch every other day for at least six weeks. Keep in mind that when you stop using or stretching this new flexibility, you are likely to lose the gains you made. Incorporate balanced stretches into your routine is a must. For dancers who want to kick higher, it is not only important to stretch hamstrings, but equally important to stretch muscles like the hip flexor and quads. Finally, help students seek a balance between strength, stability and flexibility. If you notice that a dancer is extremely flexible by nature, still have them stretch, but also add in strengthening exercises to help maintain their muscle stability.
Warm Up/ Cool Down
Preventing Soreness: Although it is just as important as warming up, cooling down often gets overlooked. Including dynamic warm-ups is critical for warming up and cooling down. Before your group begins running or stretching, do a few gentle exercises to bring oxygen and blood to their muscles and joints (a few jumping jacks and gentle jogging very slowly before they increase their pace). If running, do not allow your students to stop their run abruptly. Spend the last 3 to 5 minutes backing off the pace until they are walking. A cool down stretch flushes out lactic acid and helps prevent soreness. If you need your team to be at their best and over the soreness, consider an ice bath.
While on a core training program, work on good form and proper technique. Technique must be developed first! Height will develop after good habits are instilled.
POOR HABITS DIE HARD! It is important to begin teaching proper form, carriage, footwork, leg alignment, and landings before executing precision kicks.
►Determine the proper alignment and style of the kick that your team will be trained in.
Example: Straight leg alignment (natural extension: brush the leg up from a tendu, to a dégagé, to a full grand battement in NATURAL leg alignment coming towards your shoulder) or kicks out of alignment and aimed at the nose.
The student must be familiar with all details of kick technique to become an accomplished kicker.
Directors/officers should always detail and demonstrate to a beginner prior to a trial run-through.
Create various kick technique exercises and teach them to the group. Incorporate the exercises into the daily workout.
Teach your team or pre-drill class a technique/control routine. Leg control and proper extension is a must! This will also help in muscle development and strength. Create an exercise that requires extension from knee to toe, from a parallel level, hold, then slowly lower to parallel first.
Example: Passé rt. forward on (1), extend rt. forward on (2), hold (3-4), slowly lower to parallel first (5-8). Reverse and repeat on left. You can increase repetitions as the student begins to develop muscle control. Put together a complete technique warm-up routine.
Kick Drills Across the Floor
Incorporate kick drills into your daily workout to ensure development in technique, strength, alignment, and precision. These drills will help them achieve their goals if they remain focused on executing all parts of the drill correctly.
Walk Kicks: Include detail of “foot articulation” in the transitional movement and encourage them to be mindful of working on the footwork. Always remind your team to point and stretch their feet the second their foot leaves the ground. Step forward on left in turnout (ct. 1), swing kick R leg forward (ct. 2), walk forward in turnout R, L, R (cts. 3-5), kick L forward (ct. 6), walk forward in turnout L, R (cts. 7-8) Repeat. *Make sure heel remains down while kicking, bring the leg to the upper torso (do not allow the back to bend). Keep ribcage lifted, arms straight (and barely touch hookups), focus up. Do not let the head hunch or meet the kick! Make sure your team is working together to keep lines straight! Kick line precision MUST be mastered in the beginning!
Power Kicks: This particular drill will assist in developing timing and whipping down recoveries. Chassé forward on L (1&2), swing kick R forward (ct.3), whip leg down and touch point (ct. 4), repeat same down the floor working R leg, then work L on return. *Make sure your team is working together to keep lines straight! Train them to “power up” and power down” the leg. This will assist with timing. Again…kick line precision is a MUST!
Fan Drills: as with walk kicks, include detail of “foot articulation” in the transitional movement and encourage them to be mindful of working on the footwork. This drill will assist with developing the complete rotation of the fan kick. I trained my team to “power up” the first kick of the fan and allow it to carry the rotation…I’ve found the technique to be an effective teaching tool. Step L to L in turnout (ct. 1), power fan R to R (from the L) (ct. 2), walk in turn out to the R front diagonal R, L, R (cts. 3-5), fan L to L (ct. 6), walk in turnout to L front diagonal L, R, L (cts. 7-1) Repeat. *Make sure your team is working to keep their line straight, focus up and back straight.
How often do you notice that your students do NOT point their feet? And do you wonder why telling them to do so, doesn’t always work? Training your team to develop strength in their feet and ankles should start when you pull the new team together at training camp. When I directed the Texas State Strutters, drills were incorporated into their workout to develop clean transitional movement by articulating the feet. Articulation of the foot has to be over emphasized in order for it to be an “automatic response” when moving (and to develop muscle memory). This is one of the most difficult exercises for students to connect with movement, AND it takes time to achieve this technique. The end result…pointed feet!
Building the Foundation
Preparatory connecting steps require precision in order to appear smooth and ensure that what follows works well for the performers (and is visually pleasing to any audience). Teach common transitions and incorporate the basic movement fundamentals into your warm-up exercises and across-the-floor combinations. These fundamental footwork elements can be developed and perfected if they are worked on daily. (In an ideal world, it would be terrific to start practices with technique exercises every day. Unfortunately, most teams are on a “time crunch”.) Be sure to alternate between those emphasizing quick movement patterns and exercises that use the floor’s resistance to articulate the feet. (I have used this phrase often with my team to emphasize the importance of footwork.) Teaching combinations as a series of understandable units or relating them to everyday motions like walking, will enable your students to progress to the finished movement.
Improving High Kick Foot Points
Incorporate kick drills into your daily workout to ensure development in technique, strength, alignment, and precision. These drills will help them achieve their goals if they remain focused on executing all parts of the drill correctly. Include detail of “foot articulation” in the transitional movement and encourage them to be mindful of working the footwork. And always remind your team to point and stretch their feet the second their foot leaves the ground. Emphasizing the importance of clean transitional movement, will become an “automatic response” when moving. If you follow these teaching techniques, your students are sure to develop the quality and artistry of each transitional movement.
Work Your Feet Through Transitions
For the most part, dancers are trained to point their feet and turn out when executing an extension, pirouette or any position where the foot is off the floor. But many times, I find dancers are not paying enough attention to their feet when they are actually on the floor. For instance, when stepping out of an extension or battement, the foot or leg should be turned out as it is placed back on the floor. This attention to detail during transitional movement is the true mark of a dancer who is aware of her technique. Feet are like hands in their expressive capability, but they are not often used to their full potential. ALWAYS train your dancers to “articulate” their feet and show expression through transitional movement.
There are a variety of exercises to help strengthen ankles including rising to the balls of the feet to drawing each letter of the alphabet with pointed feet. Your students need to develop an understanding of what they need to feel and accomplish while executing ALL strengthening exercises.
In closing, it is imperative that your team develop muscle memory through the development of articulating their feet through combinations across the floor and transitional movement. Articulation of the foot has to be over emphasized in order for it to be an “automatic response” when moving (and to develop muscle memory). This is one of the most difficult exercises for students to connect with movement, AND it takes time to achieve this technique. The end result…pointed feet!
WHAT TO LOOK FOR & CORRECT
Posture/Bending backs – Must have good body alignment (vertical back), shoulders down, ribcage lifted, focus up, and tighten abdominals. Hips should remain square to the front. A strong tight core will aid in keeping backs straight while kicking (tightening the core needs to be an automatic response)
Lack of spring on a jump kick
Leg alignment *Determine placement
Developpé kicks *Legs should be straight
Foot turnout on kick *Entire foot should be straight
Lifting hip / leaning & sitting into kicks *Hips remain squared front (not rotated)
Pulling & bending arms while kicking *Arms should be straight with no pressure placed on connections
Hands spread on hook-up *Fingers should be closed
Dropping kick past proper placement during transition
Timing (power up & power down)
Keeping heel down on swing kicks
Recoveries and “finish-off” *Whip leg down for timing and determine recovery position
Preps prior to kick (feet together, then kick)
Bent legs and flexed feet *Legs must be straight
Endurance * Incorporate a cardiovascular program to help promote cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility.
Straight backs / lifted rib cage
Head hunching *Head should not meet leg…leg comes to you!
Kick line precision (keeping line straight while kicking and moving)
Clean foot articulation! Always remind your dancers to point and stretch their feet the second their foot leaves the ground.
Remember…bring the leg to YOU, do not meet the kick by bending to it.
High Kick Exercises for Dance Teams | Live Healthy
By T. Marice Huggins
High kicks may be the most recognizable move done by dance teams. In fact, high kicks are the signature move of the Dallas Cowboy Cheerleaders and the Radio City Music Hall Rockettes. While the performers doing high kicks appear to do so effortlessly, the move takes a lot of hand work and practice. Achieving the perfect high kicks requires exercises that improve posture, balance and flexibility.
High kicks require flexible hamstrings, quadriceps and hips. Performing kicks also involves the use of back muscles. As a result, it is essential that you are warm and that you stretch out the high-kick muscles to avoid injury when doing high kicks for your dance team. To stretch out your back and leg muscles, sit on the floor with your legs extended in front of you and then bend forward from the hips in an attempt to make your rib cage touch your thighs. You can also stretch by extending your legs to each side and then leaning your torso as far as you can in each direction.
Having flexible muscles is only part of the physical requirements for achieving a high kick. A strong core is necessary so you can keep your back straight when kicking. A weak core and slouched back can make a high kick look sloppy and cause injuries. To improve core strength, lie flat on your back with your legs extended upward. Curl your shoulders and head up while lifting your arms slightly off the ground. With your head and shoulders up and your legs extended, pump your arms 10 times. Take a break by releasing from the position and then repeat ten times for a total of 100 arm pumps.
If you don't have good balance, you will have a hard time mastering high kicks. After all, kicking does involve the ability to balance on one foot for a period of time. Ballet barre exercises are great for working on balance. With one hand resting on the bar, firmly plant one foot into the ground while lifting the opposite leg. Bend the knee of the lifted leg with the foot touching the knee of the standing leg and stay in place. This is known as passé in ballet. Once you are stable, remove your hand from the barre and try balancing on the leg for as long as possible. Repeat on the other side.
In addition to core strength, balance and flexibility, high kicks require impeccable technique. Unpointed toes and other technical issues can ruin the aesthetics of a high kick. Proper technique includes having your toes pointed, legs straight, heels on the floor and back straight. Technique can be practiced in a traveling-kick exercise, in which you step forward on your right foot and then kick your left leg up. Next, you step on your left foot and kick your right leg up. This should be done with your arms extended straight out to each side.
T. Marice Huggins has been published several times in both the New York and New Jersey editions of "Contemporary Bride Magazine." She has also been published in national publications such as "Redbook," Dance Magazine" and "Caribbean Travel and Life." Thanks to extensive dance training in college, she is very well-versed in the areas of health and fitness.
HIGH KICK. Fundamentals of Personal Security
A high kick is designed to hit an opponent in front of you. This technique is used as a sudden preemptive attack, as well as in situations where an attack with the hands is impossible or impractical (for example, when the enemy has covered his head with his hands, having gone into a dead defense, or, for example, when your hands are busy with something).
High kick is only used if the opponent's hands are full or he is otherwise unable to grab your leg or otherwise defend himself.
A kick can reach an opponent who is at a distance that excludes a kick from a place. That is why one of the typical situations for the use of this technique is the moment when the enemy recoiled from you, receiving a blow to the head or trying to evade it.
The blow is directed to the area of the groin and lower abdomen, since this area of the human body is densely saturated with nerve endings. When hit in the scrotum, this attack has the potential to render the enemy incapacitated by overloading their central nervous system with pain signals. A blow of considerable force inflicted on the lower abdomen can be fatal, causing cardiac arrest .
The blow is applied with a swinging whip motion along an arcuate upward trajectory with the toe of the boot in the groin, genitals or lower abdomen (Fig. 31). The kick starts as a normal but very fast forward step. Only you raise your hip higher than in everyday walking, as if you want to step onto a high step or chair in front of you. As your hip rises, your leg flexes at the knee and strikes with the toe of your boot.
When performing a kick, the supporting leg should be slightly bent at the knee in order to make it easier to balance.
The movement must be continuous, without prior high knee extension. You simply throw your booted foot off the floor and into your opponent's groin. In fact, the mechanics of this attack resembles how the edge of the palm strikes, the knee plays the role of the elbow joint, and the hip joint plays the role of the shoulder joint.
When delivering this blow, the British commandos were taught: "When aiming at the groin, hit at the chin", in other words, when aiming at the groin, you must strike as if you want to cut the enemy with your foot to the chin.
It is very important that the trajectory of the blow be upward, since the maximum pain when exposed to the scrotum occurs when the blow flattens the testicles located in it against the pubic bone.
After a strike, the leg does not come back, but is placed near the opponent. You transfer your mass to it, simultaneously attacking with your hands on the approach.
When making a strike, it is important to keep your hands in front of you (fig. 32), not only to protect against counterattacks, but also so that the enemy, bending over from the received blow, does not accidentally headbutt you in the face.
Surprise, speed and accuracy are of paramount importance. Don't swing or do anything that might tell your opponent that you're about to kick. A convenient method of disguising the initial phase of the strike is a small step on the opponent with the other foot. This movement will leave the foot you want to attack with behind, creating a slight swing, and its movement towards the opponent in the initial phase of the strike will most likely be perceived as a step.
If this strike is delivered as a surprise preemptive attack from a speaking position, do not look where you want to strike. It is advisable to divert the enemy's attention with gestures, for example, by waving your arms up.
The impact is designed for closed-toe shoes. Kicking with a bare foot in this manner can result in injury to the toes.
Following a kick, you must immediately attack the opponent with your hands to the head.
At arm's length or less, this blow may not be delivered with the toe, but with the instep of the foot or the lower part of the shin. This technique is also recommended if you are barefoot or wearing open-toed shoes such as sandals or beach flip-flops.
Brief historical background
In general, in the Fairbairn system, kicks above knee level are not recommended. That is why this blow, which is an exception to this rule, is called high.
SOE agents, OSS agents and British commandos were taught to use this technique also to finish off a prone opponent, inflicting this blow to the kidneys, neck, back of the head or temple. At the same time, it was recommended to avoid blows to the top of the head. Obviously, the use of such an attack is beyond the scope of a self-defense situation, since such a kick to the head with a high degree of probability will be fatal.
An identical toe strike is found in the traditional savate (coup de pied pointe)  and may well have been borrowed by Fairbairn from there. Moreover, some SOE agents in their memoirs write that they were shown a "high kick with a savate leg." On the other hand, Fairbairn himself in a number of sources indicates that all kicks in his system are taken from "Chinese boxing" (obviously, from the baguazhang style, which he studied in Shanghai).
In any case, Fairbairn did not take as a model the technique of kicking from atemiwaza tenjin sinyo ryu, since in this style a similar kick is applied with the ball of the foot under the toes, and the leg after the kick abruptly withdraws and returns to its original position .
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SMASH DOWN KICK
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Classical dance, ballet
Exercise at the support or in the middle is a set of training exercises in ballet that contribute to the development of muscles, ligaments, and the development of dancer's coordination of movements. Exercises are performed at the “machine” (attached to the wall with brackets) and in the middle of the training hall daily. The exercise consists of the same elements.
Adagio A part of the dance performed slowly to calm music. The concept is used not only in the sense of music, but also:
An individual dance, or part of a musical-choreographic performance performed by one, two or more soloists. The most common adagio is performed by a duet;
For exercise - exercises at the choreographic barre or in the center of the hall, which consist of a set of poses and exercises, turning elements, inclinations in a calm rhythm. The task of the adagio is to develop stability, expressiveness, musicality, harmony and smooth transitions from one movement to another.
Includes grand plie, develope, revelant, all kinds of balances, pirouettes, turns. A fused bundle for 32, 64 accounts.
Allegro (allegro in Italian means soon, dexterously, quickly) is a set of exercises in the center of the gym, which consists of jumps of different heights and speeds.
ARABESQUE [arabesque] - a classical dance pose in which the leg is retracted "toe to the floor" at 45 °, 60 ° or 90 °, the position of the torso, arms and head depends on the shape of the arabesque. one of the basic movements in classical choreography. The position of the allongee hands, the gaze rushes into the distance, which gives the pose grace and expressiveness. The arabesque symbolizes an elusive dream; it is the leitmotif of Giselle or the Sylph, popular romantic heroines. During the exercise, the supporting leg can fully stand on the foot, half-toes / fingers, be extended or bent at the knee. Sometimes it is performed with an emphasis on the knee and the removal of the second leg. If the pose is performed in a jump, then the position of the leg may be different (strictly perpendicular to the floor, throwing forward, etc.). The Russian ballet school divides the arabesque into four types. The first two are open (arabesque effacee), the third and fourth are closed (arabesque croisee). The old ballet school singled out another fifth type of arabesque, in which the body leaned over and the arms were raised forward allongee. Arabesque penchee - a pose in which the body leans forward so that the working leg can rise as high as possible. I,II,III,IV Arabesques.
ASSEMBLE [aseamble] - a jump from one leg to two is performed with the legs moving in a given direction and collecting the legs during the jump together. When performing this movement, the working leg can open in any direction with the toe on the floor or in the air, while the dancer simultaneously squats on the supporting leg. Then the working leg is placed in the 5th position on the fingers or half-toes. The movement ends in a demi-plie. If the figure is performed in a jump, then the legs are collected at the time of flight. The execution of the jump can be varied: on the spot (leg throw to a small height, small jump petit pas assemble), or with advancement (strong leg throw at 70-90 degrees, extremely high takeoff grand pas assemble). In the first case, the movement begins with a jump and a throw of the leg from the 5th position. A grand pas assemble always requires an approach to achieve maximum jump height. To maintain balance, the arms are caught up in position and help the jump. Additional complications in the form of skids or double turns can give the movement spectacle and virtuosity. The main difference between pas double assemble (performed on fingers or half-toes on a small jump) is that the figure is performed twice from the same foot. If the position is executed to the side, the change of legs to the 5th position is performed at the moment of the second movement.
ATTITUDE [attitude] - the position of the leg off the floor and slightly bent at the knee. It is one of the main positions in classical choreography. During execution, the working leg bends at the knee and rises back to a height. The supporting leg can stand on the foot, fingers or half-toes, hands in the allondie position. The figure is the basis for a big jump. To perform it, like an arabesque, you need a strong and flexible back. If the attitude is performed forward, the bent leg is lifted forward, and the heel should be above the level of the knee. This is the leitmotif of proud heroines, such as Aurora (ballet "Sleeping Beauty"). In a broad sense, attitude is any posture that a dancer or dancer assumes.
A LA SECONDE [a la segond] - a position in which the performer is located en face, and the "working" leg is open to the side by 90 °.
ALLONGE, ARRONDIE [alonge, arondi] - the position of a rounded or elongated arm. "Reaching", the final movement of the arm, leg, torso.
Aplomb [aplomb] - (balance) - the dancer's ability to stand in one position or another on one leg for a long time.
Balance [balance] - Swing, sway. Swinging motion.
Pas ballonne The dance is characterized by advancement at the moment of jumping in various directions and poses, as well as legs strongly extended in the air until the moment of landing and bending one leg on sur le coude pied.
Pas ballotte [pa ballotte] - To hesitate. A movement in which the legs at the moment of the jump are extended forward and backward, passing through the central point. The body leans back and forth, as if hesitating.
balance - "swaying", pendulum movement of the legs forward up - back down, forward - back, forward - back up
Balancoire [balancer] - Swing. Used in grand battement jete.
Batterie [batry] - Drum beat. The leg in the position sur le coude pied makes a series of small shock movements.
Pas de bourree [pas de bourree] - Chased dance step, stepping over with little advance.
Brise [breeze] - Break, crush. Movement from the section of jumps with skids.
Pas de basque [pas de basque] - Basque step. This movement is characterized by a score of ¾ or 6/8, i.e. triplex. Runs forward and backward.
Battement [batman] - Span, beat.
Battement tendu [batman tandu] - Abduction and adduction of the outstretched leg, extension of the leg. "Elongated" sliding movement of the foot in the position of the foot on the toe forward, to the side, back with the return of the sliding movement to the IP.
B attement tendu jeté - (batman tandyu zhete) - “throw”, swing to the downward position (25 °, 45 °) with a cross
Battement fondu [battman fondue] - Soft, smooth, “melting” movement. A movement consisting of simultaneous bending of the knees, at the end of which the "working" leg comes to the position sur le cou-de-pied in front of or behind the skating leg, and then follows the simultaneous extension of the knees and the "working" leg opens forward, sideways or back. In modern jazz dance, the fondu form from the folk stage dance lesson is also used.
battement fondu - (batman fondue) - “soft”, “melting”, simultaneous flexion and extension of the legs in the hip and knee joints.
battement frappe - (batman frappe) - Striking movement, or striking movement. A movement consisting of rapid, vigorous flexion and extension of the leg, the foot being brought into sur le cou-de-pied position at the moment of flexion and opening toe to the floor or 45° high at the moment of extension forward, sideways or backward. Frappe [frappe] - Beat.
Battement double frappe
Battement developpe [batman devloppe] - Swing, open, take out the leg 90 degrees in the desired direction, pose. Taking out the leg forward, backward or to the side by sliding the "working" leg along the supporting one.
BATTEMENT AVELOPPE [batman avloppe] - the opposite battement developpe movement, the "working" leg from the open position through the passe is lowered to the specified position.
Battement soutenu [batman soutenu] - Sustain, maintain, pull up the legs in the fifth position, continuous movement.
BATTEMENT RELEVELENT - smooth lifting of the leg through sliding along the floor 90 ° forward, sideways or backwards.
1 When learning the vocabulary, it is necessary to remember that the movements of classical dance, borrowed by modern jazz dance, are very often modified. This is especially true of the eversion and parallel position. In this regard, the terminology of classical ballet is given in the dictionary without changes (see All about ballet//S left by E.Ya. Surits. M., 1966, Encyclopedia "Ballet". M., 1981, etc.), and the change in the provisions depends on the context of the lesson. There is often terminological overlap between English and French terminology, for example, temps leve is the same as hop, battement tendu is like brack, kick is like grand battement developpe, etc. In this case, it is necessary to use the movement depending on the specific exercise.
BATTEMENTRETIRE [batman retire] - transfer through the sliding of the "working" leg, through the passe from the V position in front to the V position behind.
petit battement - (petit battman) - “little blow” - alternately small, short foot strikes in the cou de pied position in front and behind the supporting leg.
grand battement - (grand batman) - “big throw, swing” 90 ° and above through the position of the foot on the toe.
battu- (botyu) - “beat” continuously, small, short blows to the ankle joint only in front or behind the supporting leg.
Cabriole [cabriole] - Jump with knocking one leg over the other.
Chain [shen] - Chain.
Changement de pieds
Changement [shazhman] - Change.
Pas chasse [pa chasse] - Drive, adjust. Ground jump with advance, during which one leg knocks out the other.
Pas de chat [pas de sha] - Cat's step. This jump is similar in character to the gentle movement of a cat's jump, which is emphasized by the curve of the body and the gentle movement of the arms.
Le chat [le sha] - Cat.
Pas ciseaux [pas ciseaux] - Scissors. The name of this jump comes from the nature of the movement of the legs, thrown forward in turn and extended in the air.
Coupe [coupe] — Jerky. Knocking out. Jerky movement, short push.
Pas couru [to smoke] - Running through the sixth position.
Croisee [krause] - Crossing. A pose in which the legs are crossed, one leg covers the other.
Degagee [degagee] - Release, take away. “Transition” from the stance to the left right forward to the toe, step forward through the semi-squat in IV position, straightening up, stance to the right, left back, to the toe. From the stand on the left, right to the side on the toe, step to the side through the semi-squat in II position, stand on the right, left to the side on the toe.
Developpee [devloppe] - Taking out. “Opening”, “deployed”, from the stoic to the left, right with a sliding movement to a bent position (toe at the knee) and its extension in any direction (forward, side, back) or higher.
Dessus-dessous [desu-desu] - Top and bottom, above and below. Pas de bourre view.
double - (double) - “double”, • battement tendu - double heel pressure • battement fondu - double semi-squat • battement frapper - double blow.
Ecartee [ekarte] - Take away, push apart. A pose in which the entire figure is turned diagonally.
- a pose that builds from the epaulement in 5th position with one of the legs abducted to the side. At this time, the body deviates from the waist to the supporting leg. Small ecartee poses are performed with the toe extended to the floor, medium poses with 45 degrees of leg elevation, and large 90o and above. The supporting leg is on a full foot, toes / half toes, the knee is fully stretched, or in a demi-plie position. The working leg is extended at the knee, the foot is stretched. The movement can be performed in a jump, the position of the hands is any. The ecartee pose has two types:
- Ecartee forward. The working leg is open diagonally forward in 2 positions, that is, towards the viewer. At this time, the head is turned in the same direction, raised, the gaze rushes upward;
- Ecartee back. The working leg is open back diagonally in 2 positions, away from the viewer. The head turns to the supporting leg, and the gaze rushes down.
Effacee [eface] - Expanded position of the body and legs. A pose that builds from the epaulement efface in 5th position with the legs moving forward or backward. Small effacee poses are performed with the toe extended to the floor, medium poses at a height of 45 degrees, large poses 90 degrees and above. The position of the supporting leg on the full foot, toes / semi-toes, stretched at the knee, or in demi-plie. The working leg can be straight or bent at the knee. It is performed in the air, or on a jump. The position of the hands and head can change endlessly, varying the changes in posture.
Epaulement (from epaule - shoulder) - a position during which the dancer becomes half-turned to the mirror, or to the viewer. Feet, hips and thighs are turned to the right or to the left side of the viewer by 45o or 135o. The head turns to the shoulder, which is directed forward. This position gives the dance three-dimensionality, makes it more expressive and artistic. When performing, the dancer must control the angle of the head, the position of the shoulders and the direction of the gaze.
- Epaulement croise (verb croiser - to cross) - a pose during which the legs are in any crossed position (3,4,5). The shoulder and leg of the same name are turned towards the viewer. The head turns towards the turned shoulder. This position allows you to take any posture through the open leg;
- Epaulement efface (the verb effacer - to remove, hide) - a pose during which the legs are in any crossed position (3,4,5), but the leg opposite to the shoulder turned towards the viewer is in front. This position allows you to take any position effacee through the opening of the leg forward or backward.
Echappe [echappe] - Break out. Jump with legs opening to the second position and collecting from the second to the fifth.
Pas emboite [pa ambuate] - Insert, insert, stack. A jump during which there is a change of half-bent legs in the air.
Entrechat [entrechat] - Jump with a skid.
En dehors [an deor] - Out, from the circle. Circular movement away from you, circular movement outward at the hip or knee joint, as well as turns.
En dedans [an dedan] - Inside, in a circle. Circular motion towards yourself, circular motion inward.
En face [en face] - Straight, straight position of the body, head and legs.
En tournant [an turnan] - Rotate, turn the body while moving.
Fouette [fuete] - Whip, flog. A kind of dance turn, fast, sharp. The open leg bends towards the supporting leg during the turn and opens again with a sharp movement.
This movement has several variations:
- Fouette en tournant at 45° En dehors. At the moment when the left leg is in demi-plie, the right leg is opened in 2 positions by 45 degrees, tout en dehors on the left leg. At the moment of execution, the working leg touches the supporting leg on the calf. The hands at this time are in the preparatory, or first position. The stop is performed on a demi-plie, arms and legs open in 2 positions. The movement begins with the right foot, while the supporting one does not collapse. If Fouette is performed several times in a row, it begins with preparation in 4 positions, rising to pointe shoes, performing tour en dehors;
- Fouette en tournant for 45° En dedans is performed in the same way, but the working leg first goes in front of the calf and then back. The exercise is mandatory in the tutorial, but rarely seen on stage;
The French ballet school is similar to the Russian one. Movements: les fouettesen dedans et endehors, les fouettes sautes, les fouettes sur pointes ou demi-pointes. The dancer performs a pique on the right foot. At this time, the left one rises forward, the dancer performs a tour on her finger (surlapointe) or half-finger (demi-pointe), and the left one remains extended in the air. The movement ends at en arabesque sur pointe (oudemi-pointe).
American Ballet School Fouette en tournant at 45° En dehors. In contrast to the Russian school, where the working leg during the tour touches the middle of the calf from behind, and then goes to the front of the calf of the left leg (petit Battement), in the American school the working leg performs a demi rond at 45 °. This gives the figure an additional force, but at the same time it can threaten to “release the hip” and the ballerina to leave the axis. Due to this execution, Fouette is performed with advancement to the side or forward.
- Grand Fouette. He absorbed the teachings of the French and Italian schools;
- Les fouette sendehors. The croisee pose marks the back of the left leg. Coupe on the half-toes of the left leg, hands go to the second position, the left leg goes down to the demi-plie, and the left hand to the 1st position. At the moment when the dancer moves her half-bent right leg forward 90 degrees, she rises to the half-toes of her left, quickly circles the Grand rond de jambe with her right leg back and finishes on her left leg in demi-plie in III arabesque (in the en face position - facing the viewer ). Hands perform Port de bras: the left is raised to position 3 and passes to 2, while the right is transferred to 3 and passes through the right to III arabesque when lowering the left leg into a plie;
- Les fouette sendedanse tendedans - identical execution principle;
- Grand Fouette en tournanten dedans. The dancer stands in a croisee position forward with her left foot, descends into a demi-plie on her left foot, jumps on half-toes and throws her right foot into position 2 (alaseconde) at 90 ° (120 °) - Grand battement jete. During the turn, he swings his right leg through the passe parterre (passing position). At this moment, the supporting leg rotates on half-toes, and the right leg remains at the same height.
- Grand Fouette entournanten dedans. Or Italian fuete. It is performed on the fingers in the same way. The only difference is that the movement does not begin with plie, but with surlecou depied. Ends in attitude on pointe shoes. 3 position for the right hand and the first for the left.
- Grand Fouette en tournant saute execution is the same as Grand Fouette en tournan tendedans, only the left leg leaves the floor in a jump, the turn is executed in the air on a jump of the left leg.
Pas failli [pa fai] - Hook, stop. Weakening movement. This movement is fleeting and often serves to prepare the springboard for the next jump. One leg seems to undercut the other. "Flying", IP - 5th position right in front. Push 2 jump up, dropping into a cross lunge left to the side, left hand up, right back - push left and swing right back down jump up 2 hands down.
Galloper [gallop] - Chase, chase, jump, race.
Glissade [glissade] - Slide, slide. A jump performed without lifting the toes off the floor.
Grand [large] - Large.
Jete entrelacee [jete entrelacee] - Flip jump.
Entrelacee [entrelace] - Bind.
Jete [jete] - Throw. Throw a leg in place or in a jump.
Jete ferme [jete ferme] - Closed jump.
Jete passé [jete passe] - Passing jump.
Lever [left] - Raise.
Pas [pa] — Pitch. Movement or combination of movements. It is used as equivalent to the concept of "dance".
pounte - (pointe) - “on the toe”, “touching with the toe” from the stoic on the left, right forward, to the side or back on the toe swing in any direction with a return to the IP.
por de bras - (porter de bras) - (Porter - wear, Bras - hand) - the correct transfer of hands to the main positions (1,2,3), rounded (Arrondi), elongated (Allonge) with a turn or tilt of the head, body. There are port de bras the first, second and third.
Pas d'achions [pas d'axion] - Effective dance. Pas de deux [pa de deux] - Dance of two performers, a classical duet, usually a dancer and a dancer. Pas de trois [pas de trois] - Dance of three performers, a classical trio, usually two dancers and one dancer. Pas de quatre [pas de quatre] - Dance of four performers, classical quartet.
Passe [pass] - Conduct, pass. Connecting movement, holding or moving the leg, “pass”, “pass”, the position of the bent leg, the toe at the knee: in front, to the side, behind.
Petit [petit] - Small.
Petit battement [petit batman]
Pirouette [pirouette] - Yule, turntable. Fast rotation on the floor.
Plie [plie] - Squat. Demi-plie [demi plie] - Half squat. Grand plie - (grand plie) - deep, big "squat".
Pointe [pointe] - Sock, fingers.
Preparation [preparation] - Preparation, preparation.
Releve [releve] - Raise, elevate. Rise on fingers or on half-fingers. "Lifting", lifting to a rack on toes with lowering to the IP in any position of the legs. Releve, temps is a preparatory movement for performing tours and pirouettes. In its purest form, it is a preparation for rotations. Petit temps releve a la 2nd: working leg in surlecou-de-pied position, supporting leg in squat, hands in first position. The semi-bent working leg is brought to the side at a height of 45-60 degrees, while the supporting leg is leveled or stands on the toes/half toes. Hands open in 2 position. Temps releve endehors is performed from the surlecou-de-pied position in front, endans from the surlecou-de-pied position at the back. Grand temps releve a la 2nd - the same exercise, but the working leg is displayed for more than 90 degrees.
Relevelent - Slow leg lift 90 degrees. “Raise” slowly, smoothly slowly at the expense of 1-4 1-8 raising the legs forward, sideways or back and higher.
Renverse [ranverse] - Overturn, turn over. Overturn the body in a strong bend and in a turn.
rond dejamb parterre - (rond de jamb par ter) - toe circle on the floor circular movement of the toe on the floor.
Rond [rond] - Circle. demi rond - (demi rond) - incomplete circle, semicircle (toe on the floor, on 45ana 90° and above).
Rond de jambe en l'air [ron de jambe en l'air] - leg circle in the air, standing on the left right to the side, circular movement of the lower leg out or in.
Soute [sote] - Jump in place in positions.
Simple [sample] - Simple, simple movement.
Sissonne [sison] - Does not have a direct translation. It means a type of jump, varied in form and often used.
Sissonne fermee [sison farm] - Closed jump.
Sissonne ouverte [sison overt] - Jump with leg opening.
Sissonne simple [sison sample] - A simple jump from two legs to one.
Sissonne tombee [sison tombee] - A jump with a fall.
Saut de basque [so de basque] - Basque jump. Jump from one foot to another with a turn of the body in the air.
Soutenu [sutenu] - Withstand, support, retract.
Sur le cou de pied [sur le cou de pied] - the position of the leg on the ankle (at the narrowest point of the leg), the position of the bent leg on the ankle joint in front or behind.
Temps lie [tan lie] - Bound in time. Connecting, smooth, continuous movement. Small adagio, 1-half squat on the left, 2 - right forward on the toe, 3 - shift the center of gravity to the right, left back on the toe, 4-IP 5. the same to the side and back.
Temps leve soutee [tan leve soutee] - Jumping in first, second or fifth position on the same foot.