How long has this been going on dance
Dance Facts and History
Dance is a form of art that is made by purposefully recreating selected sequences of human motion, which can be imbued with the values of aesthetic and symbolism that are acknowledged by both performers and observers from within the particular culture. The dance itself can be freeform or can have a predefined choreography that may or may not align with traditions of origin or historical period.
The dance can be performed to serve various functions (social, competitive, ceremonial, martial, erotic…) but it also has two distinct forms – theatrical dance in which dancers perform for an audience, and participatory social dance where dancing in a group is encouraged to anyone. Participatory dances are most commonly found at weddings, social gatherings, and festivals, and they can be enjoyed with folk music both alone or in a group (pairs, lines, chains or other forms).
Theatrical dance is known for having more elaborate choreography, planning, costume, scenery and other elements that make the entire production feel more professional. The performers of theatrical dance are usually professional “ virtuoso dancers”, who practice their craft over the years, and are often tasked to interpret the musical accompaniment with advanced dance moves or routines.
Origins and Early History
The dance has always been with us, even before the arrival of written language and modern history, when our earliest cultures evolved utilizing oral and performance methods to pass the stories from one generation to the next. Many historians believe that social, celebratory and ritual dances are one of the essential factors of the development of early human civilizations.
The earliest findings have pinpointed the origins of ancient dances in 9000-year-old India or 5300-year-old Egypt, but the records more common infusion of dance into a modern culture can be found from Ancient Greece, China, and India. All these old dances evolved, eventually morphing into a wide variety of Roman and European medieval dances, traditional Chinese dances, Hindi and other traditional dances, respectively.
After the arrival of European Renaissance, the history of music and dance exploded with the new additions to song and dance. Ease of travel and immigration to the new world brought these dances into the mix with many native cultures of the New World, forging countless new dance types that are still popular to this day.
Do you know these facts about dance?
- First archeological proof of dance comes from the 9 thousand year old cave paintings in India.
- One of the earliest uses of structured dance was introduced in religious ceremonies that told the stories of ancient myths and gods. Egyptian priests used this kind of visual storytelling in their rituals.
- Ancient Egyptians used dancing for both entertainment and religion.
- Dance represented important parts of many Greek and Roman religious ceremonies.
- Ancient Greeks and Romans annually celebrated their wine gods Dionysus and Bacchus with several days long festivities filled with alcohol, song and dance.
- History of European medieval dance is fragmented and limited, but is believed that simple folk dances were widespread among common and wealthy classes.
- Modern dance history in Europe started with Renaissance, when many new dances were invented. After that, periods of Baroque, post French Revolution, Elizabethan era, World War 1, Prohibition, Ragtime and pre-WW2 brought many new waves of dance styles.
- Waltz, one of the most popular dances today came into popularity in mid-19th century by the efforts of the famous composer Johann Strauss, but its origins can be traced even to the distant 16th century.
- At first, waltz was performed with arm's length between male and female dances. The shocking transition to the close embrace happened only after English Queen Victoria fell in love with the dance and forced this change.
- Around 30 thousand people are employed in UK dance industry today, maintaining around 200 dance companies.
- Even people in wheelchairs can dance! Such dancing is very popular in Europe where there are even competitions in Latin dances with special wheelchair choreographies.
- Professional dance is today regarded as one of the most demanding physical abilities and sports. According to studies, 80% of all professional dances have at least one major injury during their career and staggering 93% of all dance teachers were forced into that position after career ending injury.
- High amount of injuries in professional dancing is induced by high levels of fatigue, little time for rest, inadequate healing techniques and high stress levels. All those factors can produce burn out periods when dancers have decreased strength, coordination, cognitive and immune functions.
- Lion Dance is one of the most popular religious and ceremonious dances in China and surrounding countries of Taiwan, Korea and Japan. This dance can signify bringing of good fortune, ward of evil spirits and be an excellent showcase in martial arts proficiency.
After several thousand years, dancing managed to completely infuse itself into our way of life. Here you can find more information about this fascinating activity and the impact it can have on our lives.
Since the dawn of human civilization, dance remained in close connection with us. Here you can find out more about this fascinating part of our culture, all from its roots in ancient civilizations to the modern times.
Thousand years of innovations and evolution created modern dance that we all enjoy today. Here you can find out more about specific dance styles and the way they are implemented and created.
There are many specific dances which can be sorted into single dance styles or families of related dances. Here you can read more about specific dances and variants of a specific dance.
Facts about Dancing
- Professional dances are today regarded as athletes.
- Dancing is very beneficial to your health. It lowers the chances for heart and blood vessel diseases, improves posture and weight, reduces stress and tension, improve brain function because of constant presence of music, and can improve relationship between dance partners.
- Because of the need to maintain strict head position while dancing, doctors often prescribe use of dance for those patients that need to develop their peripheral vision.
- First balled dancer that used pointe shoes was Marie Taglioni in 1832 ballet "La Sylphide".
- One tutu shoe cost up to $2000 dollars to be made, and one ballerina wears between 2 and three pairs per week.
- Because of high physical demand on their bodies, most professional dances retire from dancing during their mid-30s.
- Famous modern dance Cha-Cha originated from Cuba.
- Famous energetic ballroom dance can-can (or cancan), which is performed by the row of female dances in long skirts originated form 1830s Paris ballrooms.
- Origin of tap-dancing comes from the tribal dances of African slaves. Their arrival in North America introduced that dance to the western audiences.
- Dancing with metal tap shoes became popular in United States during 1920s and 1930s. One of the most famous tap-dancing performers of that time were Nicholas brothers, who were instrumental into bringing that style of dance into Hollywood movies.
- Famous movie stars such as Fred Astaire, Ray Bolger and Gene Kelley used tap-dancing to enchant the minds of the worldwide audience with great success.
- Hindu religion has very close relationship to dance and music. This connection can most visible be seen in their countless Bollywood movies that all celebrate dancing.
- One of the dances that managed to completely change the landscape of dance history is polka! This energetic dance that was focused for young women that liked to jump, hop and turn swept across the world in mid-19th century.
- Dancing represent great physical exercise for the people of all age. It can be safely practiced from the age of 2 to 102!
- Many historical waves of dances were perceived as the "destructors" of the old way of dance. Examples of that can be found in the 1920's Charleston and the era of Rock music.
- First ballroom dance that was ever created is Italian Viennese Waltz.
- One of the reason that ballroom dancing is starting to return into popularity is because famous TV competition show "Dancing with the Stars".
- African slaves that were brought in Brazil 300-400 years ago were prohibited from practicing martial arts. Therefore, they developed the mix of dancing and fighting that is known today as capoeira.
- Breakdancing was first created as a "less lethal" form of fighting between warring African-American street gangs in 1970s Bronx area of New York City. This form of dancing re-emerged into worldwide popularity during 1990s.
- Dance marathon competition started as early as 14th century England. They reached height of their popularity in the bloom of US entertainment expansion during 1930s depression era. Some competitions were performed in the 22 day long marathons.
- The most sensual dance of modern times is without a doubt a Tango. It originated from 1890s Argentina, but it quickly became very successful in Europe.
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From fairy tales to famed artists, four of today's most visionary dance companies will take you on an unforgettable journey with a series of amazing dance residencies for the 20th season of Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at The Music Center.
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Wed Nov 16 8:00 PM
Sun Dec 18 6:30 PM
Center Theatre Group Clyde's
Mark Taper Forum
In this electric, Tony Award®-nominated Best New Play from two-time Pulitzer Prize winner Lynn Nottage (Sweat), the West Coast premiere of Clyde’s is a new comedy that serves up the story of ordinary characters with big dreams. T...Show more
In this electric, Tony Award®-nominated Best New Play from two-time Pulitzer Prize winner Lynn Nottage (Sweat), the West Coast premiere of Clyde’s is a new comedy that serves up the story of ordinary characters with big dreams. The formerly incarcerated staff of Clyde’s truck stop diner are looking to start their lives over in the kitchen under the pressure of the fiery rule of their owner. In pursuit of the perfect sandwich, the chefs imagine a future they have been constantly told is out of reach. Deeply felt, quirky, and urgent. Clyde’s is a play that reminds us that “sometimes a hero is more than just a sandwich” (The New Yorker).
Sat Nov 19 7:30 PM
Sat Dec 10 7:30 PM
LA Opera Tosca
Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
Floria Tosca, the famous opera singer, seems to have it all. Audiences cherish her artistry—and adore hearing about her tempestuous offstage romances. But as storms of repression and rebellion rage throughout Italy, the diva is forced to play a re...Show more
Floria Tosca, the famous opera singer, seems to have it all. Audiences cherish her artistry—and adore hearing about her tempestuous offstage romances. But as storms of repression and rebellion rage throughout Italy, the diva is forced to play a real-life role she never imagined.
Torn between devotion to her lover and the machinations of a treacherous sociopath who will do anything in his power to break her down, she’s trapped in an utterly impossible predicament, with fatal consequences for them all. But this prima donna isn’t going down without a fight.
The cast is led by four of the greatest artists of their generations. Soprano Angel Blue takes on the iconic role of Puccini’s glamorous but tough-as-nails heroine, with tenors Michael Fabiano and Gregory Kunde sharing the role of Mario Cavaradossi, the rebel who becomes the target of the most dangerous man in Rome. Bass-baritone Ryan McKinny is the evil Scarpia, who likes nothing more than seeing his victims suffer. In her company debut, trailblazing Ukrainian conductor Oksana Lyniv leads a heart-pounding production staged by the legendary director John Caird.
Fri Dec 09 8:00 PM
Thu Dec 15 8:00 PM
LA Phil Dudamel Conducts Tristan: Act I
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Dudamel’s love of and talent for opera has been a highlight of his tenure with the LA Phil and led to his recent appointment as the Paris Opera’s Music Director. This season he brings Wagner’s towering tale of star-crossed lovers to Walt Disney Co...Show more
Dudamel’s love of and talent for opera has been a highlight of his tenure with the LA Phil and led to his recent appointment as the Paris Opera’s Music Director. This season he brings Wagner’s towering tale of star-crossed lovers to Walt Disney Concert Hall, featuring a star cast that is headlined by tenor Michael Weinius and soprano Miina-Liisa Värelä.
While the story of Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde is not short on drama, it was his musical setting that caused a revolution. Beginning with the very first notes—the famed “Tristan chord”—Wagner elicits an endless yearning that mirrors the tumultuous emotional worlds of our heroes, with an innovative harmonic approach that left an unavoidable impact on generations of composers.
Sat Dec 10 2:00 PM
Sat Dec 17 2:00 PM
LA Master Chorale Festival of Carols
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Our popular Festival of Carols returns with a fresh spin for 2022. Indulge in the delights of the holiday season with traditional Christmas carols and festive folksongs from around the world. Children aged six and older are welcome, provided they ...Show more
Our popular Festival of Carols returns with a fresh spin for 2022. Indulge in the delights of the holiday season with traditional Christmas carols and festive folksongs from around the world. Children aged six and older are welcome, provided they adhere to our vaccination policy and COVID-19 safety measures, so bring the family and celebrate the season with the Los Angeles Master Chorale.
Tue Dec 13 8:00 PM
Sun Jan 01 6:30 PM
Center Theatre Group Ain't Too Proud
Ain't Too Proud – The Life and Times of The Temptations is the electrifying, new smash-hit Broadway musical that follows The Temptations’ extraordinary journey from the streets of Detroit to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. With their si...Show more
Ain't Too Proud – The Life and Times of The Temptations is the electrifying, new smash-hit Broadway musical that follows The Temptations’ extraordinary journey from the streets of Detroit to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. With their signature dance moves and silky-smooth harmonies, they rose to the top of the charts creating an amazing 42 Top Ten Hits with 14 reaching number one.
Sun Dec 24 3:00 PM
A TMC Arts Program L.A. County Holiday Celebration
Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
The 63rd annual L.A. County Holiday Celebration returns live to The Music Center and offers Angelenos of all ages the opportunity to experience and honor the dynamic, rich cultures of the county. Enjoy a diverse lineup of L.A.-based art...Show more
The 63rd annual L.A. County Holiday Celebration returns live to The Music Center and offers Angelenos of all ages the opportunity to experience and honor the dynamic, rich cultures of the county. Enjoy a diverse lineup of L.A.-based artists including many past favorites and some exciting new talent! With performances by choral groups, dance troupes and local artists, the Holiday Celebration brings holiday cheer into the homes and hearts of all who tune in!
Sat Dec 31 8:00 PM
Sun Jan 01 12:30 AM
A TMC Arts Program Grand Park's NYELA
Grand Park, 200 N. Grand Ave, Los Angeles CA
Grand Park’s NYELA returns with Grammy®-nominated Cuban Funk artist Cimafunk and renowned DJ Marques Wyatt topping off the highly-anticipated New Year’s Eve celebration! Powered by The Music Center’s...Show more
Grand Park’s NYELA returns with Grammy®-nominated Cuban Funk artist Cimafunk and renowned DJ Marques Wyatt topping off the highly-anticipated New Year’s Eve celebration! Powered by The Music Center’s Grand Park team, the West Coast’s largest free New Year’s Eve event will also continue Grand Park’s historic 10th anniversary celebrations when the park’s signature 3D countdown light show projected onto L.A.’s iconic City Hall leads revelers into 2023.
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Street Dancing: How the Dance Battle Works
Most of the competitions are held in the knockout battle format. Some of them involve only two dancers competing against each other in one-on-one battles, and there is also the concept of entire teams competing against each other. Each team can consist of two dancers to eight, ten, and sometimes more.
In team battles, any number of people can participate in a routine (prepared bundle) - from two to the whole team, the dance is performed during the round. Opponents are not required to respond with a routine, each team independently decides what they do during their round, if certain rules are not stipulated within the competition.
O'trip House doing routine
© Little Shao/Red Bull Content Pool
Dancers or teams take turns dancing in the middle of the dance floor. Each dancer or team dances a certain number of rounds
The dancers take turns moving to the middle of the stage, dancing for the duration of their round. The chosen panel of judges then decides who they think won the battle by personally voting for the winner or holding up the card with the winner's name.
The winner of the battle moves on to the next round, and the loser is eliminated from the competition.
This continues until there are two dancers or two teams left. After that, the final battle takes place and the absolute winner of the competition is selected.
Menno wins Red Bull BC One 2017
© Little Shao/Red Bull Content Pool
How many people can compete?
The average number of dancers selected to compete is usually 16 solo dancers or 8 to 16 teams competing in a single style or mixed style battle. But in the main battle, from 4 to 32 dancers or teams can participate.
In order to participate in the main battle, dancers must first pass the qualifying stage, where judges will select participants with the necessary qualifications. From 30 to 500 dancers can take part in the qualifying stage. There are five ways to enter the competition.
Showcase round: dancers take turns performing in front of the judges. The judges evaluate each participant, then choose the best dancers with the highest scores. They are allowed to compete.
Showcase battle: in this case, dancers or teams compete against each other in an exhibition battle format, usually consisting of only one round, and in the case of team battles, a time limit may also be introduced. There is no one winner in the battle: the judges evaluate the performance of the participants in the battle and choose the dancers or teams with the most points. They will be allowed to participate in the main competition.
Preliminary Cypher: The cipher format involves the dancers gathering in a circle and then taking turns moving to the middle and dancing. Usually the duration of the music program put on by the DJ is from 30 minutes to an hour and a half. The dancers are usually given a sticker with a number, and then they stand in circles and just dance for as long as they want. The judges move from circle to circle, observing and judging, as well as recording the numbers of those dancers who made the most impression on them. After the performance time is up, the judges get together and analyze which participants' numbers were recorded and marked by all the judges. It is these dancers who will be allowed to participate in the main competition.
Winner of the previous qualifying battle: in this case, the dancer is allowed to participate in the competition based on winning another tournament.
By Invitation: The fifth and final way to compete is simply by getting an invitation. If a dancer is known and has a good reputation due to his performances and victories in various competitions at the local or international level, then the organizer of the event can directly invite him to take part in the battles.
Russian cipher Red Bull BC One
© Dmitriy Tibekin / Red Bull Content Pool
Who are judges and what do they do?
As a rule, judges are well-known and respected dancers who are members of the judging panel based on their years of experience, numerous victories in various competitions or thanks to their global contribution to the dance field.
Competitions always have an odd number of judges to avoid situations with a tie. As a rule, the judging staff includes three or five people.
Each judge only votes for one contestant in each battle, and the dancer with the most votes is the winner.
The Judges Point to the Winner
© Gianfranco Tripodo/Red Bull Content Pool
Votes sometimes result in a tie, and this is preceded by one of two scenarios.
The judges may vote for a draw if they believe that the level of the dancers participating in the battle is equal. The battle can end in a draw if all the judges vote for this result.
There may be a situation in which one judge votes for a draw, and the votes of the other judges are divided equally.
In this case, the competing dancers or teams will have to play another round for the judges to vote again. If this additional round also results in a tie, the dancers play another round and continue to do so until the judges reach a decision that will determine the winner.
But if all but one of the judges voted for a draw, then the winner is the dancer who receives the casting vote of the judge who did not vote for the draw.
What criteria do the judges evaluate when determining the winner?
As a general rule, judges base themselves on a general list of eight criteria that they pay attention to when judging. These criteria are given in no particular order:
How well the dancer feels the music and uses it to express himself in the dance.
Mastery of the base
Demonstration of excellent mastery of the basics of top rock and footwork, descents, transitions, freezes and power moves.
How well the dancers express their individuality in dance is judged.
The complexity of the elements
The level of dynamism of the movements that the dancer demonstrates.
Uniqueness and individuality of style are judged.
Technical and clean execution of elements without errors.
The performance in the round must have a beginning, middle and end, which are connected by smooth and logical transitions.
Original variations of familiar movements, execution of completely new and unusual elements, as well as demonstration of a technique that the judges have not seen before.
When a battle is a one-on-one elimination competition, the judges take into account all the criteria, with each judge independently deciding which points are more important. If the battle has a different concept or format, judges may pay more attention to some criteria than others, and accordingly, the general approach of the judge to assessing performance in competitions may change.
Below are the four different competition formats and a list of criteria that the judges primarily look at in a given competition:
Qualifying/showcase/preliminary rounds. Judges can choose a limited number of dancers. They strictly evaluate the performances, so in this case the criterion "performance" becomes the key. Any inaccuracies and errors in the performance of movements become a reason for giving a low score and simplify the task for the judge, narrowing the circle of applicants. The criteria "individuality" and "complexity of movement" are also of great importance.
Cypher king/queen competition. The judges pay great attention to criteria such as "style", "personality" and "musicality". In this format, breakers form a circle, then take turns starting to perform in the middle of it. As a rule, dancers are given a sticker with a number. The judges observe the participants and write down the numbers of the participants who made the greatest impression on them. (Sometimes the judge remains incognito, and it can be any member of the cipher). At the end of the time, the judges gather and decide who made the greatest impression on them - this person will be given the title of king / queen of the cipher.
Team battles. The uniqueness of the team battle lies in the fact that different criteria are evaluated in different rounds, and based on this information, you can send the strongest team members to participate in certain rounds. This means that the team can strategize and send the strongest dancers to participate in the respective rounds.
Watch as crews showcase their skills at the 30th anniversary of Battle of the Year in Montpellier, France.
Exception: audience-selected battles
On some projects, such as Red Bull Dance Your Style, the performances are judged by the audience, who may not understand all the subtleties, but simply dance lovers who came to enjoy the bright performances. The audience, evaluating the performances of dancers, as a rule, pays more attention to such criteria as the complexity of the elements and individuality. Viewers are more likely to vote for a dancer whose performance was able to inspire them and included high-level technical elements. The criterion of musicality is also important, but it must be at a very high level so that the audience can understand and appreciate it. Usually the audience does not pay much attention to the criteria of performance, possession of the base or composition of the round. As a rule, technical movements and individual style make a big impression on the audience.
The crowd votes for Dance Your Style
© Alex Grymanis/Red Bull Content Pool
Basics of classical dance
Classical dance is the basis of choreography. Classics allows you to learn all the subtleties of ballet art, to feel the harmony of movements and music. Many will think why do the “old” when there are many new modern trends. But you need to understand that everything new originates from the dances of past centuries. So the classics absorbed all the most elegant movements from folk and everyday dances of several centuries, gradually improving the positions of the arms and legs, the position of the head and body. All dance movements in classical dance have names in French, so dancers from different countries can easily understand each other. Classical dance classes allow you to develop flexibility, coordination of movements, strengthen the musculoskeletal system, promote endurance, physical and intellectual development, and also teach control your body. Various combinations allow you to dance beautifully and elegantly, even if it is simple movements of the hand, foot or head.
Children who go in for classical music correct their posture and correct some cases of curvature of the spine. Often, even experienced dancers of various dance styles continue to practice the classics, because its foundations are universal. In classical dance classes, they teach the basic positions of the arms and legs, the correct position of the body, introduce professional terminology and the history of the development of ballet, educate musicality, develop stability and coordination, and also prepare small classical performances in the form of etudes, adagios or various variations. All movements in classical dance are based on turnout - one of the most important qualities in the classics, which is simply necessary for any stage dance. Turnout and step development are necessary regardless of the height to which the leg is raised, turnout seems to hold the leg, leads it to the desired position, contributing to the purity of plastic movements and smoothing the angles formed by the heels when lifting the legs. Insufficiently flexible knee, ankle and instep hamper the free movements of the legs, making them cramped and unexpressive. Based on turnout, there are five foot positions in classical dance. Moreover, in all these positions, not only the feet are twisted, but the legs completely, starting from the hip joint. Regular long-term flexibility and endurance training allows you to take the necessary positions without much effort.
When starting to practice, you need to remember about the stance, because nothing will work if you do not stretch the body vertically, avoiding a bent or arched spine, and do not distribute the weight between the legs. It takes a lot of patience and time to develop correct posture. You should never forget about your posture - neither during classical lessons, nor during independent training, nor on any other day. Classical dance, like many others, is not only a set of movements, it needs to be revived, emotions and feelings must be put into it. And as soon as strong feelings are revealed in the dance, the impression of it changes to a large extent, it fascinates with its plastic expressiveness, leaving complete aesthetic pleasure.
In the 17th century (1701), the Frenchman Raoul Feuillet created a system for recording the elements of classical dance. These terms are recognized by experts in the field of world choreography and at the present time. Knowledge of technical terms speeds up the learning process. This is the international language of dance, the ability to communicate with choreographers, understanding of special literature, the ability to briefly record training combinations, lessons, etudes, floor exercises, compositions.
Choreographic terminology - a system of special names designed to indicate exercises or concepts that are difficult to briefly explain or describe.
Exercise at the support or in the middle - This is a set of training exercises in ballet that contribute to the development of muscles, ligaments, and the development of coordination in the dancer. Exercises are performed at the “machine” (attached to the wall with brackets) and in the middle of the training hall every day. Exercises consist of the same elements.
- demi plie - (demi plie) - incomplete "squat".
- grand plie - (grand plie) - deep, big "squat".
- relevé - (relevé) - "lifting", lifting into a rack on socks with lowering into the IP in any position of the legs.
- battement tendu - (batman tandyu) - "stretched" sliding movement of the foot in the position of the foot on the toe forward, to the side, back with a sliding movement returning to IP.
- battement tendu jeté - (batman tandyu jeté) "throw", swing to the downward position (25 °, 45 °) with a cross.
- demi rond - (demi rond) - incomplete circle, semicircle (toe on the floor, 45 ana 90 ° and above).
- rond dejamb parterre - (rond de jamb par terre) - a circle with a toe on the floor a circular movement of the toe on the floor.
- rond de jamb en l'air - (rond de jamb en leer) - circle with the foot in the air, stand on the left right to the side, circular movement of the lower leg out or in.
- en dehors - (andeor) - a circular movement away from oneself, a circular movement outward in the hip or knee joint, as well as turns. 10.en dedans - (andedan) - a circular movement towards oneself, a circular movement inward.
- sur le cou de pied - (sur le cou de pied) - the position of the leg on the ankle (at the narrowest point of the leg), the position of the bent leg on the ankle joint in front or behind.
- battement fondu - (batman fondue) - "soft", "melting", simultaneous flexion and extension of the legs in the hip and knee joints.
- battement frappe - (batman frappe) - “hit” - a short kick with the foot on the ankle joint of the supporting leg, and quick extension in the knee joint (25 °, 45 °) to the toe or downward position.
- petit battement - (petit battman) - "little blow" - alternately small, short foot strikes in the cou-de-pied position in front and behind the supporting leg.
- battu - (botyu) - "beat" continuously, small, short blows to the ankle joint just in front or behind the supporting leg.
- double - (double) - "double", • battement tendu - double heel pressure • battement fondu - double semi-squat • battement frapper - double blow.
- passe - (passe) - "to pass", "to pass", the position of the bent leg, the toe at the knee: in front, to the side, behind.
- relevelent - (relevant) - "raise" slowly, smoothly slowly on the count of 1-4 1-8 raising the legs forward, sideways or back and higher.
- battement soutenu - (hundred batman) - “fused” - from a stoic on toes with a half squat on the left, right, sliding forward to the toe (back or to the side) and sliding back to the IP.
- développe - (develope) - "opening", "deployed", from the stoic to the left, right with a sliding movement to the bent position (toe at the knee) and its extension in any direction (forward, side, back) or higher.
- adajio - (adagio) - slowly, smoothly includes grand plie, develope, revelant, all types of balances, pirouettes, turns. A fused bundle for 32, 64 accounts.
- attitude - (attetyud) - posture with the position of the bent leg behind, stand on the left, right to the side - back, lower leg to the left.
- terboushon - (terboushon) - a pose with the position of the bent leg in front (front attitude) stoic on the left, right forward, lower leg down to the left.
- degaje - (degaje) - "transition" from the stance to the left right forward to the toe, stepping forward through the semi-squat in IV position, straightening up, stance to the right, left back, to the toe. From the rack on the left right to the side on the toe, step to the side through the semi-squat in II position, the rack on the right, left to the side on the toe.
- grand battement - (grand batman) - "big throw, swing" 90 ° and higher through the position of the foot on the toe.
- tombée - (tonbe) - "fall" from a toe stand in the fifth position lunge forward (to the side, back) with a return to the IP in a sliding motion.
- picce - (pikke) - "piercing", standing on the left right forward to the bottom, quick multiple touches of the toe on the floor.