How to dance at a pow wow

Styles, Teachings and Meanings – Tribal Trade

A Pow wow is a celebration of life and community gathering that allows family and friends to get together and share the Native American cultural traditions. In the Pow Wow 101, we discussed the basic meanings and descriptions of a pow wow and the etiquette one should follow when attending a Pow wow. One of the most important components of a pow wow are the dancers who dance around the circle to the beat of the drum, and display their style of dance. 

The dancing around the circle represents the cycle of life, and its ongoing connection to all things in this world. Most often, the dancers move in a clockwise motion around the circle to follow the direction of the sun. The Grand Entry, the beginning of each pow-wow, starts in the ‘Eastern Doorway’ as the sun rises in the East - representing the beginning of a new day - further displaying the connection Native people have to the natural cycles of mother earth.

There are several different dance styles, some for male dancers and others for female dancers. The male dance styles are: Fancy, Grass, Prairie Chicken, and Traditional (some variations between Northern and Southern). The female dance styles are: Fancy, Jingle, and Traditional (again some variations between Northern and Southern).

Men’s Grass Dance

Men’s Grass dancers wear strands of yarn or ribbon hanging from their arms, waist, and legs to represent grass in the spirit world. This graceful dance entails flowing motion to mimic the prairie grasses. The story of the Grass dance comes from a young man who had one hindered foot and wanted to dance. He then travelled to the prairie where he prayed for guidance as he limped up a hill.

On top of that hill, he decided to develop his own style of dance so he started swaying and swooping the grass. It has been said, this is the origin of the grass dance one might see at a powwow.

Men’s Traditional Dance


The Northern Men’s Traditional dancers wear bustles of long feathers (usually from an eagle) that burst from the dancer's waist.  Many of these outfits or regalia pieces are passed down through the generations, owned by their fathers and grandfathers. For the men’s traditional dance, spectators will sometimes stand and remove hats because of the abundance of eagle feathers in the outfits.

Southern Straight

Southern Men’s Traditional also known as Southern Straight, usually wear cotton, buckskin pants, a shirt and a breastplate of bones that may stop at the waist. Breastplates sometimes go down to the knees as well and the Southern Traditional dancers also wear a roach (or a combed headdress) made of deer tail hair or porcupine guard hair.

Men’s Fancy Dance

Men's Fancy Feather dancers are often youthful, this is the most active and athletic dance styles. The brilliantly colored regalia have double bustles behind their backs with smaller bustles on their arms. Spectators are often drawn to the feathery display of color during this energetic dance. Particularly in the Men’s Fancy dance, a friendly competition may emerge between the singers and the dancers stopping with the end beat can mean winning or losing points (in competition powwow). Sometimes the singers will perform "trick songs," containing an unexpected last beat in attempt to throw off the dancers.


Women’s Fancy Shawl

Elaborately beaded capes (or yokes), moccasins and leggings are worn with appliquéd shawls that have long fringed around the shawl. These colorful outfits are danced in spirited twirling motions of this exuberant and graceful dance.

It has been said that women were dancing in men's fancy dance regalia before the fancy shawl existed, until it was decided that they should have their own dance. Fancy dance regalia display that while preserving the basic designs of our history, new materials such as sequins, ribbon, and fabric can be merged with beadwork, and feathers resulting in regalia that expresses unique Native identity. The fancy dance itself is a combination of intricate footwork in response to the beat and tone of the music form the drum and singers.


Women’s Jingle Dress Dance

There are many teachings surrounding the origin of the Jingle Dress Dance. The dance is known to have been a gift from the Creator to the Ojibway people for the purpose of healing – and has spread among other tribes. The jingle dress features seven rows of jingle cones. The cones are now made of various metal materials. Some dresses use other noise making materials, such as bones or deer hooves. Jingle dresses are often decorated with ribbon, and appliqué. Matching beadwork - leggings, moccasins, and hair ornaments – are paired with eagle feathers and plumes that are worn in the hair. Dancers carry a fan that is raised during the honor beats of the song.


Women’s Traditional Dance

The women’s traditional dance is a slow or non-moving bouncing step that involves rhythmically dipping and swaying to the beat of the drum. Traditional dresses of buckskin (or other materials) are often decorated with beading, quillwork, bone, or shells. The colors for this dance tend to be more reserved than in other regalia. Heavy breastplates, chokers, medallions, purses, buckskin moccasins, and leggings made of bone or beads are the necessary pieces of the outfit.


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Powwow general rules for first timers

Powwow general rules for first timers

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It should be noted that every POWWOW is different so the first rule is the most important. The key is respect, and many first timers don't have access to the life-long teachings that we take for granted. Here is the Charley's 16 rules, hope you enjoy.

The following are general rules I give to follow when going to a POWWOW.

1) Listen to the Master of Ceremonies.

2) Do not sit within the arena. The chairs inside the arena are reserved for the dancers. Use the outside circle or bleachers if provided.

3) If you want to take pictures, check with the POWWOW host first, then check with the person you are taking pictures of and ASK THEIR PERMISSION. Under no circumstances may you enter the arena to take photos. Put your camera down for all memorial dances.

4) All tape recording must be done with the permission of the Master of Ceremonies and the Lead (or Head) Singer of EACH drum. When a new drum starts, do not enter the arena to get to the other drum. Don't run. Miss the song and wait for the next one to take your time getting to the drum. Nothing is more rude than Recorder-runners ganging around a drum. Many Powwow disallow this anyway (fine by me!).

5) If you are not wearing traditional Regalia, you may dance only on social songs (like Two-Step, Blanket Dance, Honoring Songs, Circle, etc..) Sometimes a blanket dance is held to gather money. You may enter the circle to donate.

6) Only those with the permission of the Lead Singer may sit at a drum. (And it's a good idea to know the songs because it's often a habit to ask the stranger to lead one.)

7) Stand and men must remove their hat (unless traditional head gear) during the Grand Entry, Flag Songs, Invocation, Memorial, Veterans Songs, and the Closing Song.

8) During the Gourd Dancing, only Gourd Dancers and Gourd Dance Societies are to enter the Dance arena. Owning a gourd rattle does not make one a Gourd Dancer. Check with the local Societies.

9) Please do not permit your children to enter the dance circle unless they are dancing.

10) Do not touch anyones dance Regalia without their permission. These clothes are not costumes and yes we use modern things like safety pins and such because we are a living culture, our Regalia is subject to change. Leave your stereotypes at home. (Yes there are some blond tribal enrolled Indians... no ones fault that life goes on!)

11) If you are asked to dance by an elder, do so. It is rude and disrespectful to say, I don't know how. How can you learn if you turn the elders down?

12) Most all Powwows do not allow Alcoholic beverages, Gold Paint cans, or drugs here. The Powwow is a time of joyful gathering and celebration of life. Alcohol and drugs are destroying our way of life and these bad spirits are not welcome.

13) It's funny how much trash we as people drop. Make an extra effort to walk to the trash can. Respect Mother Earth.

14) Remember always: Native American Indian dances are more than the word dance can describe. They are a ceremony and a prayer which all life encompasses and produce many emotional and spiritual reactions. Some dances are old, some are brand new... the culture continues to live and evolve.

15) Urban Powwows are much more tense than Powwows on the rez. As people are away from the comfort of culture, they tend to take things more seriously. Abide by peoples wishes and requests. We as Indian people believe differently. Some dance around clock-wise, others counter clock-wise. If our host asks, we sometimes voluntarily show our respect by temporarily changing our way(s). Show your respect by doing the same.

16) Have fun. Buy something from the vendors. Donate if you can. And most of all don't be so uptight and relax. The whole universe comes together this day to celebrate. You are invited to join in.

Please remember, these are general rules when there is no other ground work to proceed from. Hope this helps.

Addendum to list on Pow-wow rules:

Some groups believe that children should make their own way around the dance ring, so they frown on carrying your child as you dance. I have always carried my grand children, whether the group likes it or not. But, then I'm a tribal member. If I were a visitor I guess I'd follow the rules.

In addition, some groups don't believe that people should touch each other when they dance, except for the 49 or Two Step dances. This is a rule that I respect, except when someone is truly reluctant to get up and try it. Then I offer to link arms and they soon get over their shyness.


MOST OF ALL: when the announcer calls an Intertribal dance, the persons who have come to pow-wow as visitors should respect the call and get out on the dance ring. There is a reason for this. It is not polite to watch as others perform. Pow-wow is really about honoring the circle, not letting others do the honoring for you. I realize that some folks feel self conscious about getting the moves right, but I have never witnessed any ridicule of anyone's dancing. A good Anishinabe friend of mine suggests that we each develop the policy of leaving our egos on the seat when we get up to dance. That way, they can't be influenced by the thought that we might look out of place. No one is out of place in the circle.--Mary Ritchie:Potawatomi

I am a Northern Traditional Dancer from Pine Ridge SD. I have danced at pow-wows since the age of 5years. Having danced Fancy and Grass styles and run the White Wolf Singers out of Denver CO, I know a few things about pow-wows.

1) Pow-wows are NOT I repeat NOT traditional in any way. The modern day pow-wow was formed in Oklahoma after the traders decided that they could bring tourists into their areas by having the people play Indian. Although the dances derive from traditional ceremonies and dress, a person from the 1800s would not recognize any part of a modern pow-wow.

2) I have seen so much change, I remember seeing what was called a bustle dance. The traditional dancers would remove their eagle feather bustle and place them on the floor and then dance around it! Now when even one Eagle feather drops the pow-wow is stopped and the feather is picked up with more or less ceremony. This ceremony is now (traditional).

3) I always hear people complain about prize money. The contest is what pow-wows are about today. The things that we love about dances is all the bright colors and lots of dancers, the more the better in fact. If no prize money was offered at the pow-wow the outfits would not be so flashy and fun. (remember the old fluffy bustles of the 60s). Also most of those dancers came from some other city, rez, state, or Country do you think the Jonathan Windyboy, Eli Tail, Terry Fiddler, and others travel all summer with Government checks. The pow-wow circuit lasts from March to Sept so you can bet that they don't have jobs. Prize money allows everyone to see the best dancers and here the best singers of North America in your home town.

Two years ago I met a jingle dress dancer from Alberta at the Oglala Nation Fair in Pine Ridge she said I have made 22 thousand dollars so far this year we wont go hungry this winter. So in as few words as possible NO CASH NO BIG POW-WOWS.

4)public invited all drums and dancers welcome. Read your flyers most should have that statement on or near the bottom. I support any dancer that takes the time and effort to make a good outfit and dances with respect, every dancer should feel the same way. The more dancers the better the pow-wow. If a dancer is mistreated for amy reason that dancer should leave the arena or arbor and forget about ever attending or supporting that pow-wow committee or group ever again. If there is prejudice or Mixed blood Full blood craziness forget it they are not worth your time. Hang out with your friends meet people and engage in some friendly competition, that is what pow-wows are all about today. -- David Browneyes

Pow wow -

For the articles of the same name, see Pow wow (disambiguation).

Powwow is a collection of North American Indians. Traditionally, it was a religious event (shamanism) or a celebration of martial deeds. Today there is a real "chain" of powwows, which have become festive events and an opportunity for the Indians to bring their cultural heritage to life. Powwow is a meeting holiday and is seen in the Amerindians as a privileged moment for everyone to get closer to the core and exchange with family and friends. nine0003

Powwow, Omaha, 1983.


  • 1 story
    • 1.1 Etymology
    • 1.2 Origin
    • 1.3 Suppression of Native American dances in Canada and the United States
      • 1.3.1 Canadian Law Enforcement
      • 1.3.2 US repression
    • 1.4 Cultural festivals
    • 1.5 Organization
    • 1.6 How it works powwow
    • 1.7 Dancing nine0022
    • 1.7.1 Men's dances
    • 1.7.2 Women's dances
    • 1.7.3 Mixed dances
  • 2 Notes and references
  • 3 applications
    • 3.1 Bibliography
    • 3.2 Related Articles
    • 3.3 External links
  • History


    The word " pow-wow " is derived from the word pow -wow or powow , which refers to a spiritual leader, physician , or a gathering of spiritual leaders in Algonquian. European Americans believed that the word denoted any gathering of indigenous peoples and corrupted its pronunciation to powwow . Over time, while learning English, Native Americans also began to use the term with its new pronunciation and new meaning.


    Some sources indicate that the powwow was rooted in the Pawnee religious ceremony and was practiced at least 2 centuries ago. The warriors gathered to dance and celebrate their exploits and good fortune. This custom was adopted by the Omahasa Nation and later spread to other Indian peoples of the Great Plains. Other sources state that powwows originated from a ceremony held by the Warriors Society called " Grass Dancers" .

    The first modern powwow appeared about a century ago on Native American reservations in the northwestern United States and Western Canada.

    Suppression of Native American dances in Canada and the United States

    Native American dances were frowned upon by the natives, who considered them war dances. In addition, it was clear that these ceremonies and dances played an important role in the identity and culture of the First Nations and that they made it difficult for them to assimilate, so they were subject to repression by the First Nations. US and Canadian governments. On the other hand, the leaders of the Christian churches strongly opposed all traditional religious beliefs and their manifestations, such as ceremonies and dances. nine0003

    Repression in Canada

    In Canada, traditional Aboriginal dances have been banned by the government for decades. An 1880 amendment to the Indian Act prohibited Native Americans from organizing, attending or even attending a traditional ceremony called Potlatch or a dance called Tamanawas, under pain of imprisonment. An 1895 amendment to the same law extended this prohibition to include, among other things, any Native American dance, ceremony, or festival during which participants could receive donations (hereinafter " give "traditions").

    Men and women of Nez Perses and Umatillas gathered at powwow in 1900.

    Following this amendment and the harsh crackdown that followed, First Nations leaders attempted to negotiate the right to dance with the Canadian government, promising, among other things, that the dances would not include a gift ceremony and that “they would be shortened to meet the requirements. to the traditional days of rest for foreigners, namely weekends. nine0003

    So dancing resumed in the reserves, and as it attracted tourists, organizers of various fairs and exhibitions encouraged powwows at their events by offering rations of food or money to participating Native Americans and those displaying wigwams. They organized dance competitions and awarded prizes for the most beautiful traditional regalia.

    These changes have preserved traditions such as Aboriginal crafts, leather clothing and beading, and introduced powwow competitions. Thus, many exhibitions in Canada encouraged indigenous dances, until at 19In 14, another amendment to the Indian Act was not made, this time banning dancing or wearing traditional dance attire outside the reservation under criminal penalties. Finally, in the 1925 Amendment, the Canadian government banned the powwow, the sun dance, and the sweat tent ceremony.

    But during these years, despite these threats, the Native Americans continued to practice their dances in secret and thus were able to maintain the tradition.

    After World War II, several Canadian Native American war veterans called for changes in the law, including freedom of religion and the right to practice their traditional ceremonies and dances. In addition, the opinion of the Canadian population regarding the aborigines has changed. At 1951 saw a major revision of the Indian Act, and among the changes it made, it allowed Natives to legally hold powwows and ceremonies in Canada.

    Repression in the USA

    The US government banned Native American dances from 1880 to 1934.

    Cultural Festivals

    Dancers Grass Dance at Powwow in Seattle in 2010.

    Although it was originally a war or spiritual manifestation, powwow acquired a festive and cultural character. Modern powwows, powwows are generally "inter-tribal", which means that anyone can participate in them. It is also an opportunity to organize dance competitions or traditional craft fairs. It seems that the powwow has become one of the main means of expressing the identity of Native Americans and protecting their cultures. Organized first in the reserves, powwows have bred and can be found, for example, in universities. nine0003

    In Window Rock, Arizona, Pow Wow celebrates the Navajo Nation every year with Indians from all over the country. A young Cree in traditional full dress holds the flag of the United States, as if he also wants to join the Union.

    Ornans Town Hall in Franche-Comté, France, with the help of the Association of the Four Winds , holds powwows every two years. About fifty American Indians from various nations (Navajo, Lakota, Apache, Arapaho, Seneca, Algonquin, etc.) then go on a journey to celebrate their powwow in countries other than their own. This unique event in Europe was first held in 1998 in Lausanne (Switzerland). Since this has been happening in France. This powwow, called "Dance with Lou", establishes a real bridge between two cultures, two stories with one purpose: to share.


    Powwow in the USA in 2002.

    • Location: The powwow can be done indoors, such as in a gym or outdoors. Although there are differences from one place to another, there is usually a central circle where the dancing takes place, called the dance arena. A special place is reserved for the organizing committee, the director of the arena, the master of ceremonies and groups of singers. Seats for dancers and their families are usually located separately from the seating area for visitors. Finally, around these places, craft and food merchants set up shops to sell their products. nine0026
    • Organizing Committee: The event is organized by a committee that has to plan and organize important aspects of the powwow a few months before the event.
    • Arena manager: He is in charge of powwow . He makes sure that the dancers are present during their dances and that the singers know which songs to sing. He is responsible for special ceremonies that can take place during powwow , such as when an eagle feather falls to the ground. Lastly, he makes sure that patrons respect the dance arena and reserved seats. nine0026
    • Moderator: Often referred to as the "MC", he speaks into the microphone to address everyone and thus ensures the integrity of the event. He keeps the audience and participants in the loop by announcing upcoming dances or explaining traditions. It is he who conducts the draw and special competitions. The hosts are known for their humor and their call to stimulate the crowd or dancers.


    unfolds powwow

    Carrying out powwow follows strict rules and etiquette.

    Flag Bearers and Officers during the Grand Entrée at Upper Lake Chippewa Pow Wow in the Indian Reserve Grand Portage in 2009.

    Powwow begins with a ceremony called the Grand Entrance, which consists of the opening of the parade. To the sound of songs and drums, those carrying staff (decorated with a stick, representing tradition) open the main entrance, followed by bannermen, veterans, headdancers (dance leaders) and finally all the dancers who will participate in the powwow. When all the dancers enter the dance circle, the singers perform two songs of honor, one in honor of the flags and the other in honor of the veterans. The Great Entrance is closed by the elder's prayer.

    Several styles of dance follow each other, guests are invited to participate in special dances called inter-tribal.

    There are two types of powwow: competitive powwow and traditional powwow. During the competitive powwow, the best singing groups and the best dancers are selected by the judges and receive a cash prize. To attract the attention of the judges, the dancers usually wear brighter regalia. Traditional powwows are non-competitive and focus more on ceremonies, ancient traditions and the spiritual aspect. nine0003

    It is not recommended to use the word "costume" to describe the clothes worn by powwow dancers . This word irritates the dancers because it is too reminiscent of "being in a costume" and this mention is offensive because the dancer does not play a role, he respects who he is. A term commonly used for clothing worn by powwow dancers, - Regalia . These clothes are unique, often designed by the dancer or his family, and in addition to having a sacred aspect, they have a special meaning and symbolism. nine0005 When observing the etiquette powwow , be careful not to touch them without the permission of the participants.


    Competitive or exhibition dances are categorized according to the dance style and age of the dancers. While there are many styles of dance, the most common in North America are:

    Men's dances

    Traditional dancers at the Last Chance Community Pow Wow Festival in 2007 in Helena, Montana. nine0003

    • Traditional men's dance: The origins of this dance date back to ancient times, when warriors and hunters recounted their accomplishments through dance, reenacting their stories of bravery and cunning to show how they pursued an enemy or prey. This dance is still performed today and is popular in powwow . The regalia worn by these dancers have various elements reminiscent of ancient warriors, such as bone arrows, shields and necklace necklace. nine0026
    • Grass Dance : One of the oldest known Native American dances, a dance of rhythm, grace and symmetry. Dancers wear regalia, fringed with ribbons, scraps of cloth or wool. Their steps gently touch the ground, and what they do with one foot, they then do with the other. They also often use head, shoulder, and arm movements and flex the body. Their various movements move the fringe they wear in such a way that it resembles the movement of grass in a meadow. While the origin of this dance is not exactly known, it likely originates from the Warrior Societies of the Omaha Nation. Native American oral traditions say that in the past, dancers Grass Dance danced in some area before the ceremony to gently lay grass on the fields with their dance steps and thus prepare the place for the ceremony. To commemorate this tradition, on most pow- wow dancers of Grass Dance are asked to dance to open pow-wow , even before the Grand Entrance.

    Fancy Feather Dance at the Six Nations Powwow Festival in Ontario, Canada in 2010. nine0003

    • Feather Fancy Dance (also called Men's Fantasy Dance ): This dance was created in the late 1920s and its origins are thought to be from the Ponca, Oklahoma people. This was at a time when Native American dances were banned in Canada and the United States, and when Native Americans were living on reservations, often under harsh living conditions. Although this dance was inspired by warrior dances, it was so different that the authorities of the time considered it acceptable and tolerated it. This dance was performed to please the audience, so it had to be spectacular, with quick steps and sometimes even acrobatic moves such as the wheel, split or back flip. He became popular in shows such as Wild West Show , and allowed Native Americans to keep certain traditions alive at a time when their identity and culture were under threat. It even allowed the best dancers to provide income for the family. The first Fancy Feather Dance World Champion was Gus McDonald of Ponca Nation. The origin of the regalia traditionally worn for this dance is attributed to the Kiowa and Comanche peoples.
    • Prairie Chicken (also called " Chicken Dance" ): " Prairie Chicken " is the English name for the Greater Prairie Chicken , a galline bird known for its spectacular dancing. Native American oral tradition says that a hungry young hunter saw these dancing birds on the prairie and shot one of them. He brought the bird home to share a meal with his family. At night, the spirit of this hazel grouse came to talk to him and asked why the hunter had killed him. The young man replied that in order to feed his family. The bird then taught him how to dance, and he asked him to go dance in front of his people and teach them this dance, otherwise the grouse spirit would return to take his life. Both the Blackfoot and the Cree claim to be the creators of this dance, and each of these nations has a Holy Society.0005 Prairie Chicken Dance where dancers imitate the movements of Prairie Chicken . These dances were once performed as part of the spiritual ceremonies organized by these Dance Societies and they are still performed today. However, within a few years this dance also made its way into Powwow, and today there are Prairie Chicken Dance dancers in North America who are not necessarily part of the Sacred Society of Dancers.
    Women's dances

    Traditional dancer at the festival Seafair Indian Days Pow Wow in Seattle, WA in 2009

    Bell dancers at Last Chance Community Pow Wow Festival 2007 in Helena, Montana.

    • Traditional Women's Dance: This dance is ancient and the honor it brings demonstrates the value of women in traditional Native American societies. Various elements of the dance and regalia pay tribute to the role of women as bearers of life and those who take care of the home and family. Steps, precise and controlled, evoke grace and beauty. Traditionally, the dancers' dresses were made of leather and sometimes woolen blankets. nine0026
    • Bell Dress Dance : ( Jingle Dress ) Contrary to what the name suggests, these dancers' dress is not adorned with bells, but with metal cones that collide with each other during the dance, making their own distinctive bell sound. These cones were traditionally made from pewter tobacco lids and replicas are often used today. The dresses are made of fabric and several hundred metal cones that are attached to the dress with ribbons. The dancer's steps are accurate and close to the ground. It is important that the dance moves make the metal cones ring in time with the music. The dance comes from the Ojibwa people, and was created in the early XX - th th century. Native American oral tradition tells different versions of its origin. In each version, the old man receives instructions for this dance in a dream: he sees how to sew dresses, what steps to dance, what music to play, and the fact that this dance is healing. According to one version, the old man and his wife sew four dresses and ask four women to wear them in the first dance. According to another version, the old man's granddaughter is very ill, and he sews a dress for her, which she wears to the dance. She is said to have improved her health after dancing. nine0026

    Dancer with fancy shawl at Last Chance Community Pow Wow Festival 2007 in Helena, Montana.

    • Fancy Shawl (also known as Women's Fantasy Dance ): In the late 1930s, women adopted the men's dance Fantasy Feathers , wearing regalia, as men's, and following the same steps. Around the 1950s, this dance began to differ from the male dance both in performance and in its regalia . The clothing worn by the dancers was simple, often consisting of a dress and a fringed shawl that the dancers wore around their shoulders. It is a more spectacular dance than other women's dances as the dancers perform quick jumps, kicks and turns to the beat of the music. However, they must do so smoothly and with a certain grace. A metaphor often used to describe 's fancy shawl, is a butterfly, the movements the dancer performs with the shawl resemble the flight of a butterfly. Today's dancers often wear regalia bright, brilliant colors and intricate designs.
    Mixed dances

    Hoop dance.

    • Hoop Dance ( Hoop Dance ): This is a dance that is usually performed alone, and can be performed for demonstration or as part of a competition. Dancing non-stop, stepping to the rhythm of the music, the dancer performs positions and forms with hoops while telling a story. Transitions between its positions should be quick and fluid, and may include dexterous handling of the hoops. He can use one ring, as well as several dozen. The symbols depicted during the dance often refer to nature and animals, and the hoop itself is a symbol of the circle, very present in Native American culture, which represents the cycle of life. In Native American oral tradition, some attribute the origin of this dance to the Anishinaabe Nation and others attribute it to the Pueblo Nation. Although it was originally only men, women entered as participation in the hoop dance competition at the end of XX - th century and it is common nowadays to see women perform this dance.
    • Intertribal dance: this is a dance during the powwow where everyone can participate, including in public, non-natives, people do not wear regalia .

    Notes and links

    1. ↑ " Heritage Day " on Abenaki Nation (accessed 13 November 2011) .
    2. nine0023 ↑ Becky Olvera Schultz, " Native American Powwow History and Description ", on PowWow Power (accessed March 10, 2012) .
    3. ↑ " Graduation Powwow 2012 " from University of Saskatchewan (accessed March 14, 2012) .
    4. ↑ Wendy Moss and Elaine Gardner-O'Toole, " Aboriginal People: Historic Discriminatory Legislation Against Them " on Government of Canada Publications (accessed 14 March 2012) 9" 1923–1950: Williams Treaties and Land Transfer Agreements ", in Canada in the Making - Aboriginals: Treaties and Relations (accessed March 14, 2012) .
    5. (fr) (en) Powwow - website of the Four Winds Association.
    6. ↑ Chris Glazner, Roxanne Solis and Jeff Weinman, " Arena and Staff" [archived ] , on South American Indians Pow Wowsver. 1.2 (as of March 9, 2012) .
    7. ↑ Anna Hoefnagels, " Powwow ", in The Canadian Encyclopedia - Encyclopedia of Music in Canada (accessed March 9, 2012) .
    8. ↑ " Pow Wow Basics " on the website of the National Association of Aboriginal Veterans (accessed March 14, 2012) .
    9. ↑ " Regalia " on Wacipi Pow Wow (accessed March 10, 2012) .
    10. nine0023 ↑ " Traditional Male Dance " on Wacipi Pow Wow (accessed March 15, 2012) .
    11. ↑ " Grass Dance, " at Cultural Heritage Center - Citizen Potawatomi Nation (accessed March 12, 2012) .
    12. ↑ " Grass Dancing History " on Crazy Crow (accessed March 12, 2012) .
    13. ↑ " Male Grass Dance " on Wacipi PowWow (accessed March 12, 2012) .
    14. ↑ " Dancing " from Blackfoot Crossing Historic Park (accessed March 16, 2012) .
    15. ↑ " Native American Traditional Dance ", from Encyclopedia of the American Indian (accessed March 15, 2012) .
    16. ↑ Jennifer Whitefeather Attaway, " Dance Style Jingle ", at Manataka Council of American Indians (accessed March 13, 2012) .
    17. ↑ " Women's Jingle Dress " from Gathering of Nations (accessed March 13, 2012) .
    18. ↑ " Object of the Month - August 2004 - Jingle Dress ", from University of Colorado Museum of Natural History (Viewed March 13, 2012) .



    • (en) Clyde Ellis, Luke E. Lassiter and Gary H. Dunham, Powwow , Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press , , 326 p. Related Articles
      • Native Americans in the United States
      • First Nations

      External links

      • ( fr ) Powwow Kahnawake (Quebec)
      • (en) Princess Pow-Wow Song

      POW-WOW Native American festival in Seattle. Part 2 -

      Each dancer has a personal number.

      The dancer keeps the beat of the drum and foot. And when the drum stops, he must put his feet on the ground.

      The host announces the exit of the participants of the "golden age" and older women enter the dance, trying to keep a straight posture.

      The woman in the dance is very graceful and dances straight with her head held high (ie does not bend her back like a man). nine0003

      Women's shawl dance originated in the Northern Plateau region in the 1930s.

      The woman's hair is combed in typical Indian fashion with a feather (eagle).

      If the dancer has two braids, then one large hairpin is located on the back of the head in the center. If there is one, then the hairpin is attached directly to the braid.

      Traditionally, braids are wrapped with threads of large beads or otter fur.

      The most typical ornaments are in the form of patterns depicting plants or animals or geometric ornaments.

      Shoes - beaded leggings and moccasins.

      All participants danced with serious faces and no one was smiling.
      Some of the lyrics of one of the songs were like this:

      If I get off the Indian path
      Happy times will never come again

      Dancers say
      "Hard times will come"

      Video overview:

      Tiny Tots or Dance of the Littles

      The smallest dancers of all styles represent future generations of dancers and the continuation of the life and traditions of the people.

      If the kids are not yet able to walk, they are paired with a parent.

      Male (Northern) "Traditional Dance" comes from those ancient times when the troops returning from the military raid had to "dance" the story of the battle,

      or the hunter, imitating the movements of the animal and hunting in the dance, or tracking down the enemy, had to show what was happening to them.

      Learn more